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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 IT and IS 2511.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2511
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1.1 why should you study IS? • informed user a person knowledgeable about information systems and information technology. There are several reasons why you should be an informed user. o get more value from whatever technology you use o enjoy benefits  you understand what is behind those applications at your organization  enhance quality of your organization IT applications with your inputs  quickly to get a job and could recommend /help select ITapplications  keep you abreast of new IT and rapid developments in existing technologies  understand how IT can improve your organization’s performance and teamwork as well as productivity • IT offers career opportunities o Chief Information Officer - Highest-ranking IS manager; is responsible for all strategic planning in the organization o IS Director - Highest-ranking IS manager; is responsible for all strategic planning in the organization o Information Centre Manager - Manages IS services such as help desks, hot lines, training, and consulting o Applications Development Manager- Coordinates and manages new systems development projects o Project Manager –manages a particular new system development project o Systems Manager – manages a particular existing system o Operations Manager- supervises the day to day operations of data and computer centre o Programming Manager- coordinates all applications programming efforts o Systems Analyst- inferaces between users and programmers, determiners info requirements and technical specifications for new applications o Business Analyst- focus on designing solutions for business problems, interfaces closely with users to demonstrate how IT can be used innovatively o Systems Programmer- creates the computer code for developing new system software or maintaining existing systems software o Applications Programmer- creates computer codes for developing new apps or maintaining existing apps o Emerging Technologies Manager- forecast technology trends, evaluates and experiments with new technologies o Network Manager- coordinates and manages the organizations voice/ data networks o Database Administrator – manages the organizations database and oversees the use of database management software o Auditing or Computer Security Manager – manages ethnical and legal use of IS and evaluates the quality or effectiveness of such systems o Webmaster – manages the organizations WWW o Web Designer – creates WWW and pages • Managing IS systems in modern organizations is difficult: o IS have enormous strategic value to organizations o IS are very expensive to acquire, operate, and maintain o Evolution of MIS function within the organization, computers are located in all departments and almost all employees use computers in their work [end-user computing] o End usering computing has two components  End user data entry, reporting, inquiry,  End user development, where users develops usable systems such as spreadsheets or programs using programming languages • Traditional functions of MIS department o Managing systems development and systems project management o Managing computer operations, including compter centre o Staffing, training, developing IS skills o Providing technical service o Infrastructure planning, development, control • New functions of MIS department o Initiating and designing specific strategic IS o Incorporating the internet and electronic commerce into business o Managing system integration including the internet, intranets, and extranets o Educating the non-MIS managers about IT o Educating the MIS staff about the business o Partnering with business unit executives o Managing outsourcing o Proactively using business and technical knowledge to seed innovative ideas about IT o creating business alliance with business partners 1.2Computer based IS • Information systems – collects, process, stores, analyzes, and disseminates information for a specific purpose • Data items – elementary description of things, events, activities, and transactions that are recorded , classified, and stored but are not organized to convey any specific meaning, can be numbers, letters, figures, sounds, or images. • Information- data that have been organized so that they have meaning and value to the recipient eg. GPA • Knowledge – data / information that have been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning, and expertise ad they apply to current problem • Computer based information system(CBIS) – an information system that uses computer technology to perform some or all of its intended task. • Information technology – ( hardware, software, database, networks) Components of CBIS • Hardware- processors, monitor, keyboard, printers, these devices accept, process and display data • Software- program or collection of programs that enable the hardware to process data • Database –collection of related files or tables containing data • Network – connecting system that permits different computers to share resources • Procedures- instructions for combining the above compon
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