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ADMS 2511 (127)
Carl Lapp (17)
Chapter 1

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2511
Carl Lapp

Sept. 13/11 M.I.S. Chapter 1 The Modern Organization in the Global, Web-Based Environment Management Information Systems - Deals with the planning for - and the development, manage- ment, and use of - information technology tools to help people perform all of the tasks related to information processing and management Information Technology (IT) - relates to any computer-based tool that people use to work with in- formation and to support the information and information-processing needs of an organization. 1.1. The Importance of Planning for IT - related to organizational planning and to analysis of organizational performance - New system proposals may be organized and group into application portfolios - applications that have to be modified or added IT Planning Starts with analysis Organizational strategic plan - states firms overall mission, goals that follow mission, broad steps to reach goals IT Architecture - describes the way an organizations information resources should be used to ac- complish its mission - technical and managerial aspects of information resources - technical - hardware, operating system, networking, data management systems, app. Soft- ware - Managerial - how managing the IT department will be accomplished, how functional area managers will be involved, how IT decisions will be made IT Strategic plan - set of long-range goals the describe IT infrastructure 3 objectives: - must be aligned with the organizations strategic plan - Must proved for an IT architecture that enables users, applications, and databases to be seamlessly networked and integrated - Must efficiently allocate IS development resources among competing project so projects can be completed on time and within budget and have the required functionality Critical component: IT Steering Committee Sept. 13/11 - set up to establish IT priorities and ensure MIS function is meeting the enterprises needs Major tasks: - link corporate strategy and IT strategy - Approve allocation of resources for MIS function - Establish performance measure for the MIS function Next Develop IS Operational Plan - clear set of project the IS department and area manager will execute Consists of: - Mission - IS environment - Objectives of the IS Function - Constraint n the IS function - The application Portfolio - Resource allocation and project management 1.2 Business Processes and Business Process Management Business process - collection of related activities that produce a product or a service of value to the organization - can lead to competitive advantages if they enable the company to innovate or execute better than competitors - Can be liabilities if they impede organizational responsiveness and efficiency Business Process Management (BPM) - management technique that includes methods and tools to support the design, analysis, imple- mentation, management, and optimization of business processes - Initially - helps companies improve profitability by decreasing costs and increasing revenues - Over time - create a competitive advantage by improving organizational flexibility 1.3 Information Systems: Concepts and Definitions Information systems (IS) collects, processes, stores, analyzes, and disseminates information for a specific purpose IT - broader term that includes hardware, software, and IS Primary goals of IS - economically process data into information and knowledge Data Items - elementary description of things, events, activities, and transactions that are recorded, classified, and stored but not organized to convey and specific meaning E.g. Student grades in class Sept. 13/11 Information - data organized so that they have meaning and value E.g. GPAare data, but a students name with GPAis information Knowledge - data and/or information that have been organized and processed to convey under- standing E.g. Recruiting company notices most successful people are people with 3.0 GPAor higher so only interview them Information TechnologyArchitecture - high level map or plan of the information assets in an orga- nization - guide for current operations and blueprint for future directions - Shows how all aspects of information technology in an organization fit together Information Technology Infrastructure - consist of physical dacilities, IT components, IT services, It personell that support the entire organization From Bottom up: IT components (computer software, hardware etc.) IT personnel use IT compo- nents to produce It services 1.4 The Global, Web-Based Platform - operates without regard to geography, time, distance, or even language barriers - Globalization - integration and interdependence of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life 3 eras: 1492-1800 - countries 1800-2000 - companies 2000 and on - groups and individuals 1.5 Business Pressures, Organization Responses, and IT support 3 types of business pressures: Market, Technology, and societal Market Pressures - generated by the global economy and strong competition, changing nature of the workforce, and powerful customers Global economy and strong competition - important pressure is cost of labour varies country to country - many companies move operations to countries with low labour costs - IT made such moves easier to implelement Changing Nature of the Workforce - workforce becoming more diversified - IT easing integration of all employees into the traditional workforce Powerful Customers - customers more aware of prices and products and have become more knowl- edgable Sept. 13/11 Technology Pressures - two major technology related pressures are technological innovation and information overload Technological Innovation - new and improved technologies rapidly create or support substitutes for products, alternative service options, and superb quality Information Overload- information on internet doubles approximately every year - managers need to be apple to access, navigate, and use this data, information, and knowledge ef- fectively Societal/Political/Legal Pressures Social Responsibility - some corporations and individuals are willing to spend time and/or money on solving various social problems. - efforts known as organizational social responsibility or in- dividual social responsibility - Social problem that affects modern business is the digital divide - gap between those with tech- nology and those without Compliance with Government Regulations and Deregulations - canada and other countries have passed laws and regulations to govern business activities Ethical Issues - ethics are general standards of rights and wrong. Information ethics specifically are standards of right and wrong in information-processing practices - can damage an organizations image Organizational Response - organizations are responding to the pressures by implementing IT such as strategic systems, cus- tomer focus, make-to-order and mass customization Strategic Systems - provide organizations with advantages that enable them to increase their market share and/or profits, to better negotiate with suppliers, or to prevent competitors from entering their markets Customer focus - organizational attempts to privide superb customer service can make the differ- ence between attracting and keeping customers on the one hand and losing them to competitors on t
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