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Chapter 4

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 2600
Sung Kwon

Chapter 4:Job Analysis and Work Design Relationship of Job Requirements and HRM Functions job - consists of a group of related activities and duties - duties should consist of natural units of work that are similar and related - should be clear and distinct from those of other jobs to minimize misunderstanding and conflict among employees and to enable employees to recognize what is expected of them position - consists of different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee job family - different jobs that have similar duties and responsibilities that are grouped together for the purposes of recruitment, training, compensation, or advancement opportunities job analysis - usually referred to as the ―bedrock‖ for HRM HRM functions that use information collected for jobs:  strategic HR planning  recruitment  selection  training and development  performance appraisals  compensation management  legal compliance Strategic HR Planning  info on jobs is used to examine a company's organizational structure and strategically position it for the future o Does the firm have the right numbers and types of jobs needed to cover the scope of its activities? o What jobs need to be created? o What skills do they require? o Are those skills different from the skills required by the company's current jobs? Recruitment job specification  a statement of the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required of the person performing the job  serves an essential role in the recruiting function by establishing the qualifications (typically contained in the notices of job openings) required of applicants for a job opening  provides a basis for attracting qualified applicants and discouraging unqualified ones Selection job description  a statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job  used by managers and supervisors to select employees and orient them to jobs Training and Development  training needs determined by any discrepancies between the KSAs demonstrated by a jobholder and the requirements contained in the description and specification for that job  career development as part of the training function is concerned with preparing employees for advancement to jobs where their capacities can be utilized to the fullest extent possible  formal qualification requirements set forth in high-level jobs indicate how much more training and development are needed for employees to advance to those jobs Performance Appraisal  criteria used is based on requirements contained in the description of a job  results may reveal that certain requirements established for a job are not completely valid Compensation Management  relative worth of the job is one of the most important factors in determining the rate to be paid for performing a job  worth is based on what the job demands of an employee in terms of skill, effort, and responsibility, as well as the conditions and hazards under which the work is performed Legal Compliance  systematic collection of job data ensures that a job's duties match its job description Job Analysis  sometimes called the cornerstone of HRM because the information it collects serves so many HRM functions  process of obtaining information about jobs by determining the duties, tasks, or activities of those jobs  procedure involves systematically investigating jobs by following a number of predetermined steps specified in advance of the study  results in a written report summarizing the information obtained from the analysis of 20 or 30 individual job tasks or activities upon completion o HR managers use these data to develop job descriptions and job specifications o used to perform and enhance the different HR functions such as the development of performance appraisal criteria or the content of training classes  ultimate purpose is to improve organizational performance and productivity  with objective and verifiable information about the actual requirements of a job Gathering Job Information  Interviews – questioning individual employees and managers about the job under review  Questionnaires – circulating carefully prepared questionnaires to be filled out by jobholders and managers  Observation – observing and recording on a standardized form (or video taping) the activities of jobholders  Diaries – jobholders may be asked to keep a diary of their work activities during an entire work cycle job analysts - HR specialists who are the personnel primarily responsible for the job analysis program Controlling the Accuracy of Job Information  job data collected must be accurate so care must be taken to ensure that all important facts are included  job analyst should be alert for employees who exaggerate job difficulty to inflate their egos and paycheques  job analyst must look for any responses that do not agree with other facts or impressions the analyst has received  job analyst who doubts the accuracy of information provided by employees should obtain additional information from them, their managers, or other individuals who are familiar with or perform the same job The NOC and Job Analysis National Occupational Classification (NOC)  purpose is to compile, analyze, and communicate information about occupations  info can be used for employment equity, HRP, and occupational supply-and-demand forecasts and analyses  composite of the Canadian labour market and has helped bring about a greater degree of uniformity in the job titles and descriptions used by employers in different parts of the country o uniformity has facilitated the movement of workers from regions that may be experiencing widespread unemployment to areas where employment opportunities are greater  code numbers facilitate the exchange of statistical information about jobs and are useful in reporting research in the HR area, in vocational counselling, and in charting career paths through job transfers and/or advancements Approaches to Job Analysis  position analysis questionnaire  critical incident method  task inventory analysis  competency-based analysis Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)  a quantifiable data collection method covering 194 different worker-oriented tasks  seeks to determine the degree, if any, to which the different tasks, or job elements, are involved in performing a particular job using a five-point scale  results obtained are quantitative and can be subjected to statistical analysis  also permits dimensions of behaviour to be compared across a number of jobs and permits jobs to be grouped on the basis of common characteristics Critical Incident Method  objective is to identify critical job tasks, which are those important duties and job responsibilities performed by the jobholder that lead to job success o information about critical job tasks can be collected through interviews with employees or managers or through self-report statements written by employees  important because it teaches the analyst to focus on employee behaviours critical to job success Task Inventory Analysis  can be considered a job-oriented type of job analysis  pioneered by the U.S. Air Force to analyze jobs held by Air Force specialists  a task inventory questionnaire can be tailor-made to a specific organization  developed by identifying a list of tasks and their descriptions that are components of different jobs  goal is to produce a comprehensive list of task statements that are applicable to all jobs  task statements listed on a task inventory survey form to be completed by the job analyst  analysis would also note the importance and frequency of use of the task to the successful completion of the job Competency-Based Analysis traditional approach to job analysis  assumes a static job environment in which jobs remain relatively stable apart from incumbents who might hold these jobs  jobs can be meaningfully defined in terms of tasks, duties, processes, and skills necessary for job success  discounts technological advances that are often so accelerated that jobs, as they are defined today, may be obsolete tomorrow  hinders an organization's ability to adapt to change in a dynamic environment competency-based approach to job analysis  relies on building job profiles that look at the responsibilities and activities of jobs and the worker competencies necessary to accomplish them  objective is to identify ―key‖ competencies for organizational success  competencies can be identified through focus groups, surveys, or interviews and might include such things as interpersonal communication skills, decision-making ability, conflict resolution skills, adaptability, or self-motivation  an organization's job descriptions, recruitment requirements, and performance evaluation system will reflect the competencies needed by employees HRIS and Job Analysis HRISs  have greatly facilitated the job analysis process  available today are various software programs designed specifically to analyze jobs and to write job descriptions and job specifications based on those analyses  these programs normally contain generalized task statements that can apply to many different jobs  advanced computer applications of job analysis combine job analysis with job evaluation and the pricing of organizational jobs  computerized job analysis systems can be expensive to initiate, but where the organization has many jobs to analyze, the cost per job may be low Job Descriptions job description  a written description of a job and the types of duties it includes  tend to vary in appearance and content from one organization to another  contains at least three parts: a job title, a job identification section, and a job duties section  employees’ standpoint: can be used to help them learn their job duties and to remind them of the results they are expected to achieve  employer's standpoint: can serve as a basis for minimizing the misunderstandings that occur between managers and their subordinates concerning job requirements; also establish management's right to take corrective action when the duties covered by the job description are not performed as required Job Title  of psychological importance, providing status to the employee (sanitation engineer vs. garbage collector)  should provide some indication of what the duties of the job entail (inspector, assembler, salesperson)  should indicate the relative level occupied by its holder in the organizational hierarchy (junior vs. senior) Job Identification Section  includes items such as the departmental location of the job, the person to whom the jobholder reports, and the date the job description was last revised  ―Job Statement‖ usually appears at the bottom of this section and distinguishes the job from other jobs— something the job title may fail to do Job Duties, or Essential Functions, Section  statements covering job duties typically arranged in order of importance  statements should indicate the weight, or value, of each duty  weight of a duty can be gauged by the percentage of time devoted to it  statements should stress the responsibilities all the duties entail and the results they are to accomplish  indicate the tools and equipment used by the employee in performing the job  must list only the essential functions of the job to be performed Job Specification Section  personal qualifications an individual must possess to perform the duties and responsibilities contained in a job description o skill required to perform the job  include education or experience, specialized training, personal traits or abilities, and manual dexterities o the physical demands the job places on the employee performing it  how much walking, standing, reaching, lifting, or talking must be done on the job  condition of the physical work environment and the hazards employees may encounter  should also include interpersonal skills or key competencies necessary for job success Problems with Job Descriptions  If they are poorly written, using vague rather than specific terms, they provide little guidance to the jobholder.  They are sometimes not updated as job duties or specifications change.  They may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success.  They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder, reducing organizational flexibility. Writing Clear and Specific Job Descriptions  essential to use statements that are terse, direct, and simply worded  unnecessary words or phrases should be eliminated  sentences that describe job duties begin with a present-tense verb, with the implied subject of the sentence being the employee performing the job  term occasionally is used to describe duties that are performed once in a while  term may is used in connection with duties performed only by some workers on the job Job Design job analysis  study of jobs as currently performed by employees  helps with the job description, which identifies job duties and the requirements needed to perform the work successfully job design  concerned with structuring jobs to improve organization efficiency and employee job satisfaction  concerned with changing, modifying, and enriching jobs to capture the talents of employees while improving organizational performance  should facilitate the achievement of organizational objectives, and at the same time, should recognize the capabilities and needs of those who are to perform the job (i.e. improve efficiency and employee job satisfaction) Job Design is a combination of four basic considerations:  the organizational objectives the job was created to fulfill  behavioural concerns that influence an employee's job satisfaction  industrial engineering considerations, including ways to make the job technologically efficient  ergonomic concerns, including workers’ physical and mental capabilities Behavioural Concerns - strive to satisfy the intrinsic needs of employees and motivate them in their work environments Specific programs by which managers or supervisors can formally change the jobs of employees:  job enrichment  job characteristics Method to allow employees to initiate their own job changes through the concept of empowerment  employee empowerment Job Enrichment (vertical expansion of jobs)  any effort that makes work more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks to an employee's job  touted as fulfilling the high motivational needs of employees, such as self-fulfillment and self-esteem, while achieving long-term job satisfaction and performance goals  may be accomplished by increasing the autonomy and responsibility of employees  five factors for enriching jobs and thereby motivating employees: achievement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and performance of the whole job versus only parts of the job  Increasing the level of difficulty and responsibility of the job  Allowing employees to retain more authority and control over work outcomes  Providing unit or individual job performance reports directly to employees  Adding new tasks to the job that require training and growth  Assigning individuals specific tasks, enabling them to use their particular competencies or skills o allow employees to assume a greater role in the decision-making process and become more involved in planning, organizing, directing, and controlling their own work  Vertical job enrichment can also be accomplished by organizing workers into teams and giving these teams greater authority for self-management  not the solution to problems such as dissatisfaction with pay, employee benefits, or employment security Job Characteristics  proposes that three psychological states of a jobholder result in improved work performance, internal motivation, and lower absenteeism and turnover  a motivated, satisfied, and productive employee o experiences meaningfulness of the work performed o experiences responsibility for work outcomes o has knowledge of the results of the work performed  appears to work best when certain conditions are met o i.e. employees must have the psychological desire for
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