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Chapter 6

ADMS 2600 Chapter 6 notes.docx
ADMS 2600 Chapter 6 notes.docx

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 2600
Sung Kwon

Chapter 6: Employee Selection Overview of the Selection Process Selection - process of choosing individuals who have the relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings - overall goal is to maximize ―hits‖ (accurate predictions) and avoid ―misses‖ (inaccurate predictions) Costs of Misses  direct and indirect expense of hiring an employee who turns out to be unsuccessful  opportunity cost – someone who could have been successful did not get a chance Begin with a Job Analysis - job specifications, in particular, help identify the individual competencies employees need for success—the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other factors (KSAOs) that lead to superior performance - managers then use selection methods such as interviews, references, and preemployment tests to measure applicant KSAOs against the competencies required for the job - complete and clear specification of required competencies helps interviewers differentiate between qualified and unqualified applicants and reduces the effect of an interviewer's biases and prejudices The Selection Process  Screening cover letters, résumés, and applications  Employment interviews  Post-interview screening  Pre-employment tests  Reaching a selection decision Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information reliability - degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over a period of time - refers to the extent to which two or more methods (e.g., interviews and tests) yield similar results or are consistent interrater reliability - agreement among two or more raters - one measure of a method's consistency validity - what a test or other selection procedure measures and how well it measures it - selection process should be able to predict how well a person performs on the job Reasons for validating a procedure  validity is directly related to increases in employee productivity  employment equity regulations require valid selection procedures Initial Screening - cover letters, résumés, and applications and often the Internet evaluating résumés - process can be less subjective by developing explicit evaluation criteria and a structured way to review résumés - use an assessment grid to take some of the guesswork out of the process - use software to scan résumés to find qualified applications to speed up the process o concern that capable people are routinely being rejected by machines o applicants ―peppering‖ their résumés with a job's key words to get past résumé-screening software Internet Checks and Phone Screening - HR professionals and hiring managers will often ―google‖ applicants’ names and check online social networking sites before deciding whether or not to invite them for a face-to-face interview - downside of conducting Internet searches relates to the privacy of applicants, authenticity of information posted online, and easy to confuse an applicant with someone else who has the same name - short phone interviews, or screening interviews, conducted to narrow down the field and save managers time by eliminating candidates who are not likely to be hired; video is being used to prescreen applicants as well - iCandidateScreener is a product that allows candidates to interview themselves with their webcams - candidates are also posting video résumés on YouTube and other sites - videos allow employers to see how well they present themselves and decide whether they should be interviewed - concern that video résumés will cause employers to screen people based on their looks instead of qualifications Application Forms - provide information for deciding whether applicant meets the minimum requirements for experience, education, … - provide a basis for questions the interviewer will ask about the applicant's background - offer sources for reference checks - provides information regarding the employer's conformity with various laws and regulations Suggestions for putting together an application form:  Application date – helps managers know when the form was completed and gives them an idea of the time limit (e.g., one year) for keeping the form on file  Educational background – information about grade school, high school, college, and university attendance but not the dates attended because that can be connected with age  Experience – virtually any questions that focus on work experience related to the job are permissible  Arrests and criminal convictions – questions about arrests, convictions, and criminal records are to be avoided; if bonding is a requirement, the candidate can be asked whether she or he is eligible  Country of citizenship – not permitted; allowable to ask whether the person is legally entitled to work in Canada  References – permissible and advisable that names, addresses, and phone numbers of references be provided  Disabilities - employers should avoid asking about disabilities or hospitalization or whether candidates have received workers’ compensation weighted application blank (WAB) - involves the use of a common standardized employment application that is designed to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful employees - especially helpful for reducing turnover costs in the hospitality industry Online Applications - companies can recruit candidates and fill their job openings much faster - downside of posting jobs and accepting online applications is that it can lead to a large volume of them being submitted—many of which fail to meet minimum qualifications - upside is that generating a larger number of applicants tends to promote greater employee diversity Employment Interviews - has a central role in the selection process; rare to find employee being hired without some sort of interview - applicants may be interviewed by one person, members of a work team, or other individuals in the organization o especially practical when there are only a small number of applicants o serves other purposes, such as public relations o interviewers maintain great faith and confidence in their judgments Interview Methods  Nondirective Interview  Structured Interview  Situational Interview  Behavioural Description Interview  Panel and Sequential Interviews  Computer and Virtual Interviews  Video and Digitally Recorded Interviews The Nondirective Interview - interviewer carefully refrains from influencing the applicant's remarks - applicant is allowed the maximum amount of freedom in determining the course of the discussion - interviewer asks broad, open-ended questions—such as ―Tell me more about your experiences on your last job‖—and permits the applicant to talk freely with a minimum of interruption - nondirective interviewer listens carefully and does not argue, interrupt, or change the subject abruptly - interviewer also uses follow-up questions to allow the applicant to elaborate, makes only brief responses, and allows pauses in the conversation; the pausing technique is the most difficult for the novice interviewer - greater freedom afforded to the applicant in the nondirective interview helps bring to the interviewer's attention any information, attitudes, or feelings a candidate might not disclose during more structured questioning - reliability and validity of these interviews are not likely to be as great - most likely to be used in interviewing candidates for high-level positions and in counseling The Structured Interview - has a set of standardized questions (based on job analysis) and an established set of answers against which applicant responses can be rated - provides a more consistent basis for evaluating job candidates - more likely to provide the type of information needed for making sound decisions - less likely than nondirective interviews to be attacked in court The Situational Interview - variation of the structured interview - applicant is given a hypothetical incident and asked how he or she would respond to it - applicant's response is then evaluated relative to pre-established benchmark standards The Behavioural Description Interview (BDI) - focuses on actual work incidents in the interviewee's past - asks the job applicant what he or she actually did in a given situation - assumes that past performance is the best predictor of future performance - more effective than the situational interview for hiring higher level postions Panel and Sequential Interviews - candidate meets with three to five interviewers, who take turns asking questions - interviewers pool their observations and their rating scores if the interview is structured to reach a consensus about the suitability of the candidate - higher reliability because they involve multiple inputs - result in a shorter decision-making period, and applicants are more likely to accept the decisions made - hiring discrimination is minimized sequential interview - candidate is interviewed by multiple people, one right after another - allow different interviewers who have a vested interest in the candidate's success to meet and evaluate the person one on one - interviewers later get together and compare their assessments of the candidates The Computer and Virtual Interviews - answer a series (75 to 125) of multiple-choice questions tailored to the job - answers are compared to either an ideal profile or profiles developed on the basis of other candidates’ responses - can be used as a screening device to help filter out unqualified applicants applying online who do not merit a personal interview - computer interview conducted in conjunction with online tests can measure everything from contradictory responses and latent responses (time delays related to answering a question) to the applicant's typing speed and ability to use different kinds of software Video and Digitally Recorded Interviews - potential advantages related to flexibility, speed, and cost - employers can make preliminary assessments about candidates’ technical abilities, energy level, and appearance before incurring the costs of a face-to-face meeting - goal is to enable faster, higher quality decisions at lower cost - recruiting companies digitally record job applicants and post their interviews to their websites – firms can eliminate complications involved in setting up many more interviews Guidelines for Employment Interviewers Desirable qualities of interviewers:  Humility  ability to think objectively  maturity  poise  experience in associating with people from a variety of backgrounds  avoid: overtalkativeness, extreme opinions, and biases Interviewer Training - programs should include practice interviews conducted under guidance Ten ground rules for employment interviews: 1. Understand the job 2. Establish an interview plan 3. Establish and maintain rapport and listen actively 4. Pay attention to nonverbal cues 5. Provide information as freely and honestly as possible 6. Use questions effectively – ask open-ended questions 7. Separate facts from inferences 8. Recognize biases and stereotypes 9. Avoid the ―halo error,‖ or judging an individual favourably or unfavourably overall on the basis of only one strong point (or weak point) on which you place high value. Also avoid the influence of ―beautyism.‖ 10. Control the course of the interview 11. Standardize the questions asked – increase the reliability of the interview and avoid discrimination Employment Equity: Are Your Questions Legal? - forbid direct questions about race, sex, colour, age, religion, and national origin, and most look with disapproval on indirect questions dealing with the same topics - care must be given to questions asked of female applicants about their family responsibilities - inappropriate to ask questions about matters that have no relevance to job performance Post-Interview Screening  Reference Checks  Background Checks  Credit Checks Reference Checks - supervisors are in the best position to report on an applicant's work habits and performance - written verification of information relating to job titles, duties, and pay levels from the former employer's HR office Background Checks - prevent a variety o
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