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Chapter 12

ADMS 2600 Chapter 12 notes.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2600
Sung Kwon

Chapter 12:Promoting Safety and Health Reasons most organizations provide their employees with good working conditions  because it is the right thing to do  because firms realize that people are the most strategic asset they have  Costs associated with sick leave, disability payments, replacement of employees who are injured or killed, and workers’ compensation far exceed the costs of maintaining a safety and health program  Boost employee morale and goodwill that the organization enjoys in the community and in the business world Safety and Health: It's the Law  According to the Association of Workers’ Compensation Boards of Canada, in 2009, there were 939 workplace- related deaths, which means that about 4 Canadian workers die every working day.  There are over 1 million work-related injuries each year.  There are 260,000 injuries serious enough to cause the worker to miss at least one day of work.  Over $12 billion is paid out to injured workers and their families annually. occupational injury - any cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation resulting from a workplace accident - worker's involvement in the accident can be direct, or the worker can simply be near enough to be injured occupational illness - any condition or disorder (other than one resulting from an occupational injury) caused by the work environment - can be acute or chronic - can result from inhaling, absorbing, ingesting, or directly contacting an illness-causing agent - underreported because few diseases are caused solely by work-related factors, and cause and effect can be difficult to determine Duties and Responsibilities - fundamental duty of every employer is to take every reasonable precaution to ensure employee safety - differential treatment of regulatory offences is justified by their common goal of protecting the vulnerable Duties of Employers - provide a hazard-free workplace - comply with the applicable statutes and regulations - inform their employees about safety and health requirements - keep certain records and compile an annual summary of work-related injuries and illnesses - ensure that supervisors are familiar with the work and its associated hazards - report to the Workers’ Compensation Board all accidents that cause injuries and diseases o accidents resulting in death or critical injuries must be reported immediately o accident must then be investigated and a written report submitted - provide safety training - be prepared to discipline employees for failing to comply with safety rules - required to prove due diligence o establishing a comprehensive occupational health and safety management system o providing competent supervision, training, and instruction o taking every reasonable precaution in the workplace for the health and safety of workers Duties of Workers - comply with all applicable acts and regulations - report hazardous conditions or defective equipment - follow all employer safety and health rules and regulations - follow rules prescribing the use of protective equipment - right to refuse unsafe work without fear of reprisal o some professionals, such as police, firefighters, teachers, and health care workers, have only a limited right of refusal, the logic being that their work is inherently dangerous o a work refusal investigation can result in either employee's return to work or his/ her continued refusal o if a replacement worker is used, he/ she must be notified of the previous employee's refusal to work Duties of Supervisors - advise employees of potential workplace hazards - ensure that workers use or wear safety equipment, devices, or clothing - provide written instructions where applicable - take every reasonable precaution to guarantee the safety of workers Supervisor - a person (with or without a title) who has charge of a workplace and authority over a worker Duties of Joint Health and Safety Committees - to establish a nonadversarial climate for creating safe and healthy workplaces health and safety committees - both union and management representation - in Ontario, at least one management representative and one worker representative must be certified - certification program provides training in the following subjects: safety laws, sanitation, general safety, rights and duties, and indoor air quality Penalties for Employer Noncompliance - vary across provinces and territories - most health and safety acts provide for fines up to $500,000, and offenders can be sent to jail Bill C-45 (corporate killing law) - makes it possible for criminal charges to be brought against coworkers, supervisors, and executives when a worker is killed or injured on the job Workers’ Compensation - injured workers can receive benefits in the form of a cash payout (if the disability is permanent) or wage loss payments (if the worker can no longer earn the same amount of money - unlimited medical aid is also provided - vocational rehabilitation, which includes physical, social, and psychological services - goal is to return the employee to his or her job (or some modification thereof) as soon as possible - definitions of accidents and injuries have recently been expanded to include industrial diseases and stress industrial disease - disease resulting from exposure to a substance relating to a particular process, trade, or occupation in industry Stress-related disabilities  physical injuries leading to mental disabilities (e.g., clinical depression after a serious accident)  mental stress resulting in a physical disability (ulcers or migraines)  mental stress resulting in a mental condition (anxiety over workload or downsizing, leading to depression) Promoting a Safe Work Environment - HR department or the industrial relations department is responsible for the safety program - HR department typically coordinates the safety communication and training programs, maintains safety records required by legislation, and works closely with managers and supervisors in a cooperative effort to make the program a success - have an employee-management safety committee that includes representatives from management, each department or manufacturing/service unit, and employee representatives - committees are typically involved in investigating accidents and helping to publicize the importance of safety rules and their enforcement Formal Safety Plan  Create a culture of safety o Interview for safety o Key role of supervisor o Proactive safety training program  Enforce safety rules  Investigate and record accidents Creating a Culture of Safety - culture of safety exists when everyone within an organization consciously works to improve its safety and health conditions - culture of safety that focuses specifically on process safety metrics Interviewing for Safety - HR managers should encourage supervisors to incorporate safety into their interviews with job candidates - asking job candidates about the injuries they have experienced is off-limits - interviewers can ask candidates other behavioural-type questions designed to elicit their propensity for safety o ask candidates a question about an unsafe incident they witnessed and how they handled it The Key Role of the Supervisor - communicate to an employee the need to work safely - safety should begin with new-employee orientation and emphasized continually - proper work procedures, the use of protective clothing and devices, and potential hazards should be explained thoroughly - employees’ understanding of all of these considerations should be verified during training sessions, and employees should be encouraged to take some initiative in maintaining a concern for safety - supervisors must observe employees at work and reinforce safe practices - unsafe acts detected: supervisors should take immediate action to find the cause - supervisors should also foster a team spirit of safety among the work group Proactive Safety Training Program - Most frequent topics: o first aid o defensive driving o accident prevention techniques o hazardous materials o emergency procedures - most programs emphasize the use of emergency first-aid equipment and personal safety equipment - employee involvement in design and implementation of safety programs o employees can offer valuable ideas regarding specific safety and health topics to cover, instructional methods, and proper teaching techniques o acceptance for safety training is heightened when employees feel a sense of ownership in the instructional program - Web has become a popular way to disseminate safety training materials o enhanced delivery modes facilitate the development of both managers and employees  videos, PowerPoint presentations, and interactive CD-ROM training are ideal methods for standardized safety, environmental, and health instruction o information technology allows organizations to customize their safety and health training needs o information technology is ideally suited for regulatory instruction Enforcing Safety Rules - specific rules and regulations concerning safety are communicated through supervisors, bulletin board notices, employee handbooks, and signs attached to equipment - safety rules are also emphasized in regular safety meetings, at new-employee orientations, and in manuals of standard operating procedures - penalties for violation of safety rules are usually stated in the employee handbook o oral or written warning for first violation, suspension for repeated violations, and dismissal as a last resort o serious violations may be cause for termination even if its the first offence - most effective enforcement of safety rules occurs when employees willingly obey and “champion” safety rules and procedures opportunities for employee involvement include:  jointly setting safety standards with management  participation in safety training  involvement in designing and implementing special safety training programs  involvement in establishing safety incentives and rewards  inclusion in accident investigations  solicit their ideas and opinions when assessing the risk of jobs during the job analysis process  to help identify potential hazards and develop protective measures before accidents occur  establishing an employee safety suggestion program  asking employees to formally participate in the process of observing the safety behaviour of their coworkers  soliciting employees’ opinions about the safety of the tools a company is considering purchasing  safety rewards o incentives were found to improve safety conditions or reduce accidents o can provide an incentive for employees not to report safety accidents  many companies prominently display in their workplaces the number of consecutive days they have operated without an injury to motivate employees to keep the injury-free “streak” going and possibly set new records for injury-free performance Steps In a Successful Safety Incentive Program  Obtain the full support and involvement of management by providing cost benefits  Review current injury and health statistics to determine where change is needed  Decide on a program of action and set an appropriate budget  Select a realistic safety goal such as reducing accidents by a set percentage, improving safety suggestions, or achieving a length of time without a lost-time injury o communicate your objectives to everyone involved  Select incentive rewards on the basis of their attractiveness to employees and their fit with your budget  Develop a program that is both interesting and fun o use kickoff meetings, posters, banners, quizzes, and/or games to spark employee interest o give all employees a chance to win  Communicate continually the success of your program o provide specific examples of positive changes in behaviour  Reward safety gains immediately o reinforces changed behaviour and encourages additional support for the safety program Investigating and Recording Accidents - may determine the factors contributing to the accident and reveal corrections needed to prevent from happening - correction may require rearranging workstations, installing safety guards or controls, or, more often, giving employees additional safety training and reassessing their motivation for safety - employers are required to keep certain records and to compile and post annual summaries of work-related injuries and illnesses - from these records, organizations can compute their incidence rates (i.e., the number of injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time employees during a given year) 200,000 constitutes the base for 100 full-time workers who work 40 hours a week, 50 weeks a year: The same formula can be used to compute incidence rates for  number of workdays lost because of injuries and illnesses  number of nonfatal injuries and illnesses without lost workdays  cases involving only injuries or only illnesses. Incidence rates - useful for making comparisons between work groups, departments, and similar units in the same organization - provide a basis for making comparisons with other organizations doing similar work - organizations that report and investigate their own accidents often face more inspections, higher insurance premiums, and possible lawsuits Controlling and Eliminating Health Hazards - pressure from the federal government and unions, as well as increased public concern, has given employers a definite incentive to provide the safest and healthiest work environment possible Safety Hazards and Issues  Fatigue  Distracted Driving  Workplace Violence  Workplace Emergencies Fatigue - problem in organizations that operate around the clock or have night shifts - 30 to 50 percent of night-shift workers report falling asleep at least once a week while on the job - regulations in certain industries limit the number of hours employees can work per shift - downsizing may be a factor as fewer workers are being asked to cover more shifts Distracted Driving - accounts for 80 percent of all accidents - growing number of employers are adopting mandatory cell-phone policies for their employees - other companies are outfitting their phones with apps such as Phone Guard, which prevents drivers from texting, browsing the Web, or checking email when they are travelling 10 miles per hour or faster - workers who stop hearing the world around them because they are wired up to MP3 players also create risks Workplace Violence  Threatening behaviour, such as shaking fists or throwing objects  Verbal or written threats  Harassment—any behaviour that demeans, embarrasses, or humiliates  Verbal abuse, including swearing, insults, or condescending language  Physical attacks, including hitting, shoving, pushing, or kicking Job characteristics that put workers at risk for aggression and violence in the workplace:  Interacting with the public  Making decisions that influence other people's lives (e.g., terminating an employee or assigning a failing grade) or denying the public a service or request  Supervising and/or disciplining others  Working nights or working alone  Handling cash, handling or guarding valuables, or collecting or delivering items of value  Caring for the physical or emotional needs of others or going to clients’ homes  Serving or selling alcohol or dealing with individuals under the influence of mind-altering substances The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety suggests that preventive measures should include  Workplace design o locks or physical barriers (pass-through windows or bulletproof enclosures) o sufficient lighting o electronic surveillance  Administrative practices o keeping cash register funds to a minimum o varying the time of day that cash is emptied o using a security firm to deliver cash  Work practices (particularly for those working alone away from office, i.e. home care workers, real estate agents) o having a designated contact kept informed of the employee's schedule o checking the credentials of clients Violence Indicators: Know the Warning Signs  Direct or veiled threatening statements  Recent performance declines, including concentration problems and excessive excuses  Prominent mood or behaviour changes; despondence  Preoccupation with guns, knives, or other weapons  Deliberate destruction of workplace equipment; sabotage  Fascination with stories of violence  Reckless or antisocial behaviour; evidence of prior assaultive behavior  Aggressive behaviour or intimidating statements  Written messages of violent intent; exaggerated perceptions of injustice  Serious stress in personal life  Obsessive desire to harm a specific group or person  Violence against a family member  Substance abuse Employers bound to take all reasonable precautions to protect the safety and health of their workers  Managers and supervisors can be trained to recognize violence indicators o Awareness of threatening behaviours can provide an opportunity to intervene and prevent disruptive, abusive, or violent acts  Managers must effectively communicate a zero-tolerance policy for violence and encourage employees to report any possible or observed incidents of workplace violence  A meaningful reporting procedure with clear lines of responsibility can ensure that management is promptly notified of potential security risks to take immediate steps to resolve the issues  ]formalized workplace violence prevention policies to inform employees that aggressive
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