Chapter 7 – Training and Development
The Scope of Training
- Training: Any effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members.
More narrowly focused and for short-term concerns.
- Development: Broadening an individual’s skills for future responsibilities.
- Training and Development: To recognize the combination of activities organizations use to
increase the skill base of employees.
Investments in Training
- Research shows that an organizations revenues and overall profitability are positively
correlated to the amount of training it gives its employees.
A Systems Approach to Training
- From the broadest perspective, the goal of training is to contribute to the organizations
- To ensure that a forms T&D investment has the maximum impact possible, a systems
approach should be used that involves 4 phases:
1. Needs Assessment
2. Program Design
Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment
- Chief Learning Officer (CLO): A high ranking manager directly responsible for fostering
employee learning and development within the firm.
- Regardless of who does the needs assessment within the firm, it should be conducted
systematically by utilizing the 3 types of analysis:
1. Organizational Analysis: Examination of the environment, strategies, and
resource of the organization to determine where the training emphasis
should be placed.
2. Task Analysis: The process of determining what the content of a training
program should be on the basis of a study of the tasks and duties involved in
1 step: list all the tasks/duties in the job
2 step: list the steps performed by the employee to complete each
3 step: Requiring the type of performance (speech, recall,
discrimination, and manipulation) and KSA’s.
3. Person Analysis: Determining of the specific individuals who need training
and which do not.
- Competency assessment: Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision-
oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs
Phase 2: Designing the Training Program
- Once the training needs have been determined, the next step us to design the type of
learning environment necessary to enhance learning.
- Experts believe the design of training programs should focus on the following 4 related
1. The training’s instructional objectives: Desired outcome of a training
program. Describe the skills/knowledge to be acquired and/or attitudes to be
changed. (ex: performance-centered objectives)
The information gathered from the needs assessment allows manager
to formally state the desired outcomes of training through written
2. “readiness” of trainees and their motivation:
Two preconditions for learning are readiness and motivation.
Trainee readiness: maturity and experience
Trainee motivation: Individuals who are conscientious, goal oriented,
self-disciplined, and persevering are more likely to perceive a link
between training effort and higher performance on the job.
3. Principles of learning: Psychological principles of learning.
Goal setting: goals increase level of interest, understanding, and
effort towards the training.
Meaningfulness of Presentation: One principle of learning is that the
material to be learned should be presented in as meaningful a
manner as possible.
Modelling: “a picture if worth a thousand words”. Modelling
increases the salience of behavioural training. (we learn by watching)
Individual Differences: People learn at different rates and ways. The
training programs should try to account for these individual
Active Practice and Repetition: Trainees should be given practice
opportunities before performing. Then the daily activities become
part of our repertoire of skills.
Whole-versus-Part Learning: If the task can be broken down into
parts, it should be to facilitate learning; otherwise be taught as a unit. Massed-versus-Distributed Learning: Amount of time devoted to
practice in one session. Spacing out the training will result in faster
learning and longer retention.
Feedback and Reinforcement: Can any learning occur without
4. Characteristics of instructors: Knowledge of subject, Adaptability, Sincerity,
Sense of humour, Interest, Clear instructions, Individual assistance, and
- Behaviour modification: Behaviour that is r