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Chapter 7

ADMS 2600 HRM Chapter 7.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2600
Monica Belcourt

Chapter 7 – Training and Development The Scope of Training - Training: Any effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members. More narrowly focused and for short-term concerns. - Development: Broadening an individual’s skills for future responsibilities. - Training and Development: To recognize the combination of activities organizations use to increase the skill base of employees. Investments in Training - Research shows that an organizations revenues and overall profitability are positively correlated to the amount of training it gives its employees. A Systems Approach to Training - From the broadest perspective, the goal of training is to contribute to the organizations overall goals. - To ensure that a forms T&D investment has the maximum impact possible, a systems approach should be used that involves 4 phases: 1. Needs Assessment 2. Program Design 3. Implementation 4. Evaluations Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment - Chief Learning Officer (CLO): A high ranking manager directly responsible for fostering employee learning and development within the firm. - Regardless of who does the needs assessment within the firm, it should be conducted systematically by utilizing the 3 types of analysis: 1. Organizational Analysis: Examination of the environment, strategies, and resource of the organization to determine where the training emphasis should be placed. 2. Task Analysis: The process of determining what the content of a training program should be on the basis of a study of the tasks and duties involved in the job.  1 step: list all the tasks/duties in the job  2 step: list the steps performed by the employee to complete each task. rd  3 step: Requiring the type of performance (speech, recall, discrimination, and manipulation) and KSA’s. 3. Person Analysis: Determining of the specific individuals who need training and which do not. - Competency assessment: Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision- oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs Phase 2: Designing the Training Program - Once the training needs have been determined, the next step us to design the type of learning environment necessary to enhance learning. - Experts believe the design of training programs should focus on the following 4 related issues: 1. The training’s instructional objectives: Desired outcome of a training program. Describe the skills/knowledge to be acquired and/or attitudes to be changed. (ex: performance-centered objectives)  The information gathered from the needs assessment allows manager to formally state the desired outcomes of training through written instructional objectives. 2. “readiness” of trainees and their motivation:  Two preconditions for learning are readiness and motivation.  Trainee readiness: maturity and experience  Trainee motivation: Individuals who are conscientious, goal oriented, self-disciplined, and persevering are more likely to perceive a link between training effort and higher performance on the job. 3. Principles of learning: Psychological principles of learning.  Goal setting: goals increase level of interest, understanding, and effort towards the training.  Meaningfulness of Presentation: One principle of learning is that the material to be learned should be presented in as meaningful a manner as possible.  Modelling: “a picture if worth a thousand words”. Modelling increases the salience of behavioural training. (we learn by watching)  Individual Differences: People learn at different rates and ways. The training programs should try to account for these individual differences.  Active Practice and Repetition: Trainees should be given practice opportunities before performing. Then the daily activities become part of our repertoire of skills.  Whole-versus-Part Learning: If the task can be broken down into parts, it should be to facilitate learning; otherwise be taught as a unit.  Massed-versus-Distributed Learning: Amount of time devoted to practice in one session. Spacing out the training will result in faster learning and longer retention.  Feedback and Reinforcement: Can any learning occur without feedback? 4. Characteristics of instructors: Knowledge of subject, Adaptability, Sincerity, Sense of humour, Interest, Clear instructions, Individual assistance, and Enthusiasm. “KASSICIE.” - Behaviour modification: Behaviour that is r
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