October 9, 2013
UNIT 4 – JOB ANALYSIS AND WORK DESIGN
What is a Job?
• Job: A group of related activities and duties.
• Position: The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee.
• Job Family: A group of individual jobs with similar characteristics
• Job Specification: Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of the
person who is to perform the job
• Job Description: Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) of a job to be
• Job Requirements – Strategic HR planning
o Recruitment: determine recruitment qualifications
o Selection: provide job duties and specifications for selection process
o Performance appraisal: provide performance criteria for evaluating employees
o Training & Development: determine training needs and develop instructional
o Compensation management: provide basis for determining employee’s rate of pay
• The process of obtaining information about jobs by determining what the duties, tasks, or
activities of jobs are.
• HR managers use the data to develop job descriptions and job specifications that are the
basis for many HR functions
• The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to improve organizational performance and
• 6 steps of job analysis:
o 1. Select jobs to study
o 2. Determine information to collect: Tasks, responsibilities, skill requirements
o 3. Identify sources of data: Employees, supervisors/managers ADMS 2600
October 9, 2013
o 4. Methods of data collection: Interviews, questionnaires, observation, diaries and
o 5. Evaluate and verify data collection: Other employees, supervisors/managers
o 6. Write job analysis report
• Approaches to Job Analysis
o 1. Position Analysis System
A questionnaire covering 194 different tasks that, by means of a five-point
scale, seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in
performing a particular job
o 2. Competency Based Analysis
Job analysis method which relies on building job profiles that look at the job
responsibilities and the worker competencies necessary to accomplish them
o 3. Critical Incident Method
Job analysis method by which job tasks are identified that are critical for job
The job analyst writes five to ten important task statements for each job under
o 4. Task Inventory Analysis
An organization-specific analysis developed by identifying—with the help of
employees and managers—a list of tasks and their descriptions that are
components of different jobs
Key Elements of Job Description
• Job Title
o Indicates job duties and organizational level.
o Provides status to the employee.
o Indicates the relative level occupied by its holder in the organizational hierarchy
• Job Identification
o Distinguishes job from all other jobs.
o Example: departmental location, direct reports, payroll/code number, etc. ADMS 2600
October 9, 2013
• Essential Functions (Job Duties)
o Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplished.
o Only essential if the position exists to perform the function, limited employees can
perform the function, or the function is specialized (ex: not email because everyone
• Job Specifications
o Skills required to perform the job and physical demands of the job
o Example: education, abilities/physical demands, etc.
o Hazards (ex: must work with fast moving trucks) must be listed here
• Problems with job descriptions:
o 1. If poorly written, they provide little guidance to the jobholder.
o 2. They are not always updated as job duties or specifications change.
o 3. They may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success.
o 4. They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder, reducing organizational
o To avoid these issues:
Create statements that:
• Are direct, and simply worded; eliminate unnecessary words or
• Describe duties with a present-tense verb,
• Use “occasionally” to describe duties performed once in a while and
“may” for duties performed only by some workers on the job.
• State the specific performance requirements of a job based on valid
Nature of: Basis for: