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UNIT 4 - Job Analysis and Work Design.docx

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Department
Administrative Studies
Course
ADMS 2600
Professor
Monica Belcourt
Semester
Fall

Description
ADMS 2600 October 9, 2013 UNIT 4 – JOB ANALYSIS AND WORK DESIGN What is a Job? • Job: A group of related activities and duties. • Position: The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee. • Job Family: A group of individual jobs with similar characteristics • Job Specification: Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of the person who is to perform the job • Job Description: Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) of a job to be performed • Job Requirements – Strategic HR planning o Recruitment: determine recruitment qualifications o Selection: provide job duties and specifications for selection process o Performance appraisal: provide performance criteria for evaluating employees o Training & Development: determine training needs and develop instructional programs o Compensation management: provide basis for determining employee’s rate of pay Job Analysis • The process of obtaining information about jobs by determining what the duties, tasks, or activities of jobs are. • HR managers use the data to develop job descriptions and job specifications that are the basis for many HR functions • The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to improve organizational performance and productivity. • 6 steps of job analysis: o 1. Select jobs to study o 2. Determine information to collect: Tasks, responsibilities, skill requirements o 3. Identify sources of data: Employees, supervisors/managers ADMS 2600 October 9, 2013 o 4. Methods of data collection: Interviews, questionnaires, observation, diaries and records5. o 5. Evaluate and verify data collection: Other employees, supervisors/managers o 6. Write job analysis report • Approaches to Job Analysis o 1. Position Analysis System  A questionnaire covering 194 different tasks that, by means of a five-point scale, seeks to determine the degree to which different tasks are involved in performing a particular job o 2. Competency Based Analysis  Job analysis method which relies on building job profiles that look at the job responsibilities and the worker competencies necessary to accomplish them o 3. Critical Incident Method  Job analysis method by which job tasks are identified that are critical for job success.  The job analyst writes five to ten important task statements for each job under study o 4. Task Inventory Analysis  An organization-specific analysis developed by identifying—with the help of employees and managers—a list of tasks and their descriptions that are components of different jobs Key Elements of Job Description • Job Title o Indicates job duties and organizational level. o Provides status to the employee. o Indicates the relative level occupied by its holder in the organizational hierarchy • Job Identification o Distinguishes job from all other jobs. o Example: departmental location, direct reports, payroll/code number, etc. ADMS 2600 October 9, 2013 • Essential Functions (Job Duties) o Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplished. o Only essential if the position exists to perform the function, limited employees can perform the function, or the function is specialized (ex: not email because everyone does it) • Job Specifications o Skills required to perform the job and physical demands of the job o Example: education, abilities/physical demands, etc. o Hazards (ex: must work with fast moving trucks) must be listed here • Problems with job descriptions: o 1. If poorly written, they provide little guidance to the jobholder. o 2. They are not always updated as job duties or specifications change. o 3. They may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success. o 4. They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder, reducing organizational flexibility. o To avoid these issues:  Create statements that: • Are direct, and simply worded; eliminate unnecessary words or phrases. • Describe duties with a present-tense verb, • Use “occasionally” to describe duties performed once in a while and “may” for duties performed only by some workers on the job. • State the specific performance requirements of a job based on valid job-related criteria Nature of: Basis for: Job A
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