Chapter 4 /Module 4
- Needs analysis is a process to identify gaps or deficiencies in employee and organizational
- It is a formal process of identifying needs as gaps between current and desired results,
placing those needs in priority order based on the cost to meet each need verses the cost
for ignoring it, and selecting the most important needs for reduction or elimination.
- The need analyst gathers information from key people in an organization about the
organization, jobs, and employees to determine the nature of performance problems.
- The goal of needs analysis is to identify the differences between what is and what is desired
or required in terms of results, and to compare the magnitude of gaps against the cost of
reducing them or ignoring them.
Step 1: A Concern:
- The concern is sometimes referred to as an itch or a pressure point, something that causes
managers to notice it
- Pressure can come from the external environment as well
Step 2: Importance:
- Is the concern of any importance? Is the concern central to the effectiveness of the
- Human resource policies must be linked with the strategic direction of the company.
- Training strategy should support the organization’s effort to achieve its goals.
Step 3: Consult Stakeholders
- Employees or the companies collective representative should be consulted.
- All stakeholders must buy into the needs analysis process to ensure that the data collection
will result in accurate information and that they have a vested interest in the success of the
Step 4: Collect Information
- Collect information from three levels of analysis (organizational, the task and the employee)
- Organization provides “ where training is needed In the organization)
- Task analysis provides information about the tasks and the relevant K.S.A needed to
perform the selected job “ What K.S.A are required to perform the job effectively?”
- Employee/Person analysis provides information about an employee’s level of performance
and answers the question “who needs to be trained”
Needs analysis outcome:
- The needs analysis results in a number of outcomes that set the stage for the rest of the
training and development process.
- Besides clarifying the nature of performance gaps, a needs analysis helps to determine if
training and development is a good solution to performance problems or if some other
intervention might be more effective. . - If T&D is part of the solution, needs analysis information is used to determine where training
is needed in the organization, what type of training is required, and who in the organization
should receive training.
- Needs analysis information is also used to write training objectives and to design training
- The information form a needs analysis is also used in the development of measures for
- The study of the entire organization including its strategy, environment, resources, and
- Key to the organizational analysis is finding out if a training program is congruent with an
organization’s strategy, and the existence of any constraints as well as support for the
delivery and success of a training program.
- It can help identify potential constraints and problems that can derail a training program.
- Strategic Training: the alignment of an organization’s training needs and programs with the
organization’s strategy and objectives.
- Any organization’s strategy should indicate the type and amount of training required.
- Training programs are often a direct result of government regulations.
- The nature of training program can be a direct result of an organization’s attempt to
establish a new market niche.
3. Resource Analysis:
- The identification of the resources available in an organization that might be required to
design and implement training and development programs.
4. Organizational Context:
- Training transfer climate: Characteristics in the work environment that can either facilitate
or inhibit the application of training on the job
- Culture is also important. One type of culture that is particularly important for training and
development is a learning culture.
- Learning culture is a culture in which members of an organization believe that knowledge
and skill acquisition are part of their job responsibilities and that learning is an important
part of work life in the organization.
- Training is not likely to be effective in organizations where the climate for training transfer
and/or the culture for learning are not strong
- The influence of the training transfer climate and learning culture on training effectiveness
demonstrates how important the role of the organizational context is for a training
program’s success and the need to conduct an organizational analysis.
- The process of obtaining information about a job by determining the duties, tasks, and
activities involved and the K.S.A required to perform the tasks.
- Six steps involved in a task analysis
1. Identify the target job: After a problem or performance discrepancy has been identified
in an organization, the focus shifts to the job level in order to determine which jobs are
contributing to the performance problem and have a performance gap. 2. Obtain a Job description: which is a statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities
of a job.
- The job description should contain a summary of the major duties of the job, a listing of
these duties, the K.S.A required to perform the tasks, and the conditions under which they
- The list of duties should be reviewed with subject matter experts and managers
- Analyt will then develop a list of tasks to be performed; the K.S.A’s needed to perform the
- Job specification is a statement of the K.S.A’s required to perform a job.
- The downside is that jobs change rapidly and job descriptions get outdated.
- Therefore, some job analysts began to develop a list of job competencies.
- Competency is a cluster of related k.s.a’s that enables the job holder to perform effectively.
- The goal is to develop competencies that are teachable.
3. Develop rating scales to rate the importance of each task and the frequency with which
it is performed.
4. Survey a sample