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ADMS 3410 (24)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 notes Chapter 4 notes

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 3410
Mark Podolsky

Chapter 4 /Module 4 - Needs analysis is a process to identify gaps or deficiencies in employee and organizational performance. - It is a formal process of identifying needs as gaps between current and desired results, placing those needs in priority order based on the cost to meet each need verses the cost for ignoring it, and selecting the most important needs for reduction or elimination. - The need analyst gathers information from key people in an organization about the organization, jobs, and employees to determine the nature of performance problems. - The goal of needs analysis is to identify the differences between what is and what is desired or required in terms of results, and to compare the magnitude of gaps against the cost of reducing them or ignoring them. Step 1: A Concern: - The concern is sometimes referred to as an itch or a pressure point, something that causes managers to notice it - Pressure can come from the external environment as well Step 2: Importance: - Is the concern of any importance? Is the concern central to the effectiveness of the organization - Human resource policies must be linked with the strategic direction of the company. - Training strategy should support the organization’s effort to achieve its goals. Step 3: Consult Stakeholders - Employees or the companies collective representative should be consulted. - All stakeholders must buy into the needs analysis process to ensure that the data collection will result in accurate information and that they have a vested interest in the success of the program. Step 4: Collect Information - Collect information from three levels of analysis (organizational, the task and the employee) - Organization provides “ where training is needed In the organization) - Task analysis provides information about the tasks and the relevant K.S.A needed to perform the selected job “ What K.S.A are required to perform the job effectively?” - Employee/Person analysis provides information about an employee’s level of performance and answers the question “who needs to be trained” Needs analysis outcome: - The needs analysis results in a number of outcomes that set the stage for the rest of the training and development process. - Besides clarifying the nature of performance gaps, a needs analysis helps to determine if training and development is a good solution to performance problems or if some other intervention might be more effective. . - If T&D is part of the solution, needs analysis information is used to determine where training is needed in the organization, what type of training is required, and who in the organization should receive training. - Needs analysis information is also used to write training objectives and to design training programs. - The information form a needs analysis is also used in the development of measures for training evaluation. Organizational Analysis - The study of the entire organization including its strategy, environment, resources, and context. - Key to the organizational analysis is finding out if a training program is congruent with an organization’s strategy, and the existence of any constraints as well as support for the delivery and success of a training program. - It can help identify potential constraints and problems that can derail a training program. 1. Strategy - Strategic Training: the alignment of an organization’s training needs and programs with the organization’s strategy and objectives. - Any organization’s strategy should indicate the type and amount of training required. 2. Environment: - Training programs are often a direct result of government regulations. - The nature of training program can be a direct result of an organization’s attempt to establish a new market niche. 3. Resource Analysis: - The identification of the resources available in an organization that might be required to design and implement training and development programs. 4. Organizational Context: - Training transfer climate: Characteristics in the work environment that can either facilitate or inhibit the application of training on the job - Culture is also important. One type of culture that is particularly important for training and development is a learning culture. - Learning culture is a culture in which members of an organization believe that knowledge and skill acquisition are part of their job responsibilities and that learning is an important part of work life in the organization. - Training is not likely to be effective in organizations where the climate for training transfer and/or the culture for learning are not strong - The influence of the training transfer climate and learning culture on training effectiveness demonstrates how important the role of the organizational context is for a training program’s success and the need to conduct an organizational analysis. Task Analysis - The process of obtaining information about a job by determining the duties, tasks, and activities involved and the K.S.A required to perform the tasks. - Six steps involved in a task analysis 1. Identify the target job: After a problem or performance discrepancy has been identified in an organization, the focus shifts to the job level in order to determine which jobs are contributing to the performance problem and have a performance gap. 2. Obtain a Job description: which is a statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job. - The job description should contain a summary of the major duties of the job, a listing of these duties, the K.S.A required to perform the tasks, and the conditions under which they are performed. - The list of duties should be reviewed with subject matter experts and managers - Analyt will then develop a list of tasks to be performed; the K.S.A’s needed to perform the tasks; etc - Job specification is a statement of the K.S.A’s required to perform a job. - The downside is that jobs change rapidly and job descriptions get outdated. - Therefore, some job analysts began to develop a list of job competencies. - Competency is a cluster of related k.s.a’s that enables the job holder to perform effectively. - The goal is to develop competencies that are teachable. 3. Develop rating scales to rate the importance of each task and the frequency with which it is performed. 4. Survey a sample
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