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Chapter 6

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 3450
Lois King

Chapter 6 AsiansAsians AmericanHistory of Asians in the United States1Many Americans of Filipino Japanese and Chinese ancestry have been in the United States for several generations most Southeast Asians are much more recent immigrants or refugees who have fled their countries because of war and fear for their lives2 Because entrance criteria eg education occupation for refugees are less stringent than requirements for immigrants Southeast Asian refugees often enter the country with fewer skills and assets which has longterm effects on their future in the United States3Early migrants labored in agriculture in the fishing industry in domestic service and laundry work in mining during the California gold rush and on the railways4The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 severely and purposefully restricted the entry of Chinese laborers into the United States for many decades it was the first federal legislation to bar immigrants based on national origin5Economic and political unrest in Japan coupled with labor shortages and Western expansion led to migration from Japan to Hawaii and California during the late nineteenth century6Many Japanese workers labored long hours for low pay on Hawaiian sugar plantations and many paid for their passage to Hawaii by agreeing to work a threeyear period with little or no pay similar to the indentured servants of colonial times7Like the Chinese the Japanese people faced hostility and exclusionary legislation8The internment of more than 120000 Japanese Americans during World War II is recognized as an act having devastating effects After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 panic and paranoia erupted about Japanese Americans who were living in the United States9Branded as enemy aliens the detainees privacy possessions and freedom were taken away Ironically while Japanese American soldiers fought on the US side during the war some had family members who were detained in the relocation centers which have also been referred to as concentration camps One battalion included Japanese American soldiers who had been drafted from the relocation centers to serve in the war10After three years the centers closed and Japanese Americans were allowed to return home but many homes and considerable property had been lost stolen or destroyed during their internmentRelevant legislationChinese Exclusion Act restricted Chinese immigration between 1882 and 1943 It was replaced with a quota system which allowed only 105 Chinese to enter the United States each yearNational Origins Act of 1924 severely limited other Asians entry and their ability to become naturalized citizensAlthough immigration quotas have been eliminated Asians still experience employment discrimination based on race and national origin both of which are prohibited by Title VII
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