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Chapter 5

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 3450
Lois King

Chapter 5 Latinos and Hispanics History of Hispanics in USSeparately considering history of people from Mexico Puerto Rico and Cuba in USThese three groups Mexico Puerto Rico and Cuba represent the largest group of Hispanic Americans who also have the longest history in USMexicansEarliest ancestors known of Mexican Americans have a long history in what is now the US as indigenous people residing in the Southwest and large parts of Mexico long before the arrival of European Americans With the arrival of the Spaniards in the area in 1519 the colonization of New Spain and conquest of the indigenous people beganMany mestizos were born as a result of intermarriages between Spaniards and indigenous womenAfter the Mexican American War Mexicans residing in Texas were given the option of remaining on their now US land and becoming Americans Many chose to remain in the country becoming Mexican AmericansMexicans were classified as White for Census purposes yet they were sometimes barred from restaurants and other businesses harassed and even lynchedmany legal immigrants and US citizens who were sent back to Mexico in an effort to free up jobs during the DepressionSome went voluntarily others were forced to go by police and other authorities leaving behind homes and possessions because of the sudden and forced nature of the repatriation Ironically many of those repatriated had never even been to MexicoMexicans began largescale migration to the United States again during World War II and many who returned learned then that they were already US citizens by birth As did the many Japanese who were interned see Chapter 6 Mexicans often did not speak of the repatriation but continued to distrust police and government authorities Some purposely did not speak Spanish to help avoid identification and did not pass on the language to their offspring which may explain why many of that generation do not know the languageTexas schools were also segregated under a provision of the 1876 constitution The Texas segregation was intended to exclude Blacks but resulted in the separation of Mexican children as wellMexicans in the United States also experienced residential segregation and segregation in public accommodations and businesses eg theaters poolsThe GI Forum worked against poll taxes required for voting to enroll Mexican children in schools and to obtain medical benefits for Mexican veterans The refusal to bury Felix Longoria a soldier who had been killed in the war in the White cemetery in Three Rivers Texas outraged the Mexican communityThe Chicano movement took pride in the groups culture and emphasized members Indian and Mexican heritage dismissing the negative connotation of the term ChicanoPuerto Ricans9 of Hispanics are of Puerto Rican descentPuerto Rico was seized by the United States in 1898 during the Spanish American War The Jones Act of 1917 extended citizenship to Puerto Ricans who are thereby citizens at birth whether born in the United States or in Puerto RicoMuch of this migration referred to as the Great Migration was facilitated by governmentsupervised contractsPuerto Ricans face social cultural economicand political barriers to inclusion that are similar to those experienced by other Hispanic immigrantsPuerto Ricans are diverse in race and many are bilingualPuerto Ricos official languages are English and Spanish Puerto Rico has a history of slavery abolished in 1873 racial segregation and classism which remain concerns for Puerto Ricans on the island and in the states todayThe average education and occupational attainment levels of Puerto Ricans are low and they have high rates of unemployment and poverty Puerto Ricans have lower status than other Hispanics eg Mexicans Cubans in the ethnic hiring queueCubansCastro had promised democracy and other freedoms but the promised benefits did not materialize The reason why Cubans left Cuba to go AmericaEarly migrs were often wealthy or middle class and able to bring money and property with them when they fled Later migrs were often destitute as Castro began limiting what could be taken out of the countryAlthough they arrived without money or possessionsmany in this group were professionals including physicians lawyers teachers and engineers Most of the refugees were White Cubans because some Black Cubans feared the racial unrest and discrimination that were rampant in the United States during that time
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