Textbook Notes (368,566)
Canada (161,966)
York University (12,849)
ADMS 4421 (1)
Chapter

ADMS 4421 Qualitative Methods Textbook Notes

18 Pages
202 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Administrative Studies
Course
ADMS 4421
Professor
Julia Richardson
Semester
Fall

Description
ADMS 4421 Qualitative Methods – Notes Ch 1- What is Qualitative Research Research- inquiring into, or investigating something in a systematic manner Basic research- motivated by intellectual interest -primary purpose is to know more about a phenomenon Applied research- undertaken to improve the quality of practice of a particular discipline -the difference in evaluation and research is in the questions asked, not the methods used Evaluation research- collects data on the worth of a program, process or technique Acton research- has a goal to address a specific problem within a specific setting -it often involves the participants in the research process, thus blurring the distinction between action and research Nature of Qualitative Research Survey research- describes what is, how variables are distributed across a population or phenomenon -surveys describe the facts and characteristics of a given phenomenon -is often labeled as quantitative because it’s focused on how much/many -qualitative researches are interested in understanding how people interpret their experiences, how they construct their worlds Philosophical Perspectives Positivist orientationassumes that reality exists, it is observable, stable, measurable -experimental research assumes this -the rigidity of this leads to logical empiricism Logical empiricismseeks unity in science, and says that there’s no difference b/n natural and social sci Postpositivismit is possible to distinguish between more and less plausible claims Interpretive research- assumes that reality is socially constructed -there are multiple realities of a single event -researchers don’t “find” knowledge, but construct it instead -philosopher Hesserl made an assumption that the experience a person has includes the way in which the experience is interpreted -there isn’t an “objective” experience Symbolic interactionism focuses on meaning and interpretation -in critical inquiry the goal is to critique and challenge -it’s a contrast between a research that seeks to understand and research that challenges -according to postmodernists, explanations for the way thing are in the world are nothing but myths -there’s no single “truth”, but there are multiple -postmodernists celebrate diversity among people, ideas, institutions -postmodern research is highly experimental, creative; no 2 studies look alike *Table 1.1 Pg 11* -a postmodern inquiry would question the dichotomies inherent in the research problem -the findings of this could be presented in narratives, field notes, drama, poetry Definition and Characteristics of Qualitative Research -qual researchers are interested in understanding the meaning people have constructed -how people make sense of their world and the experiences they have in the world 4 Key Characteristics to understanding the nature of qual research: Focus on Meaning and Understanding -achieve an understanding of how people make sense out of their lives -how people interpret what they experience -key concern is understanding the phenomenon from the participants’ perspectives, not researcher Emicinsider’s perspective Eticoutsider’s view Researcher as Primary Instrument -the researcher is the primary instrument for data collection and analysis -researcher can expand understanding through nonverbal as well as verbal communication, process info quickly, clarify and summarize material -biases can occur though; so rather than try to eliminate the biases, it’s important to identify them An Inductive Process -researchers gather data to build concepts rather than deductively testing hypotheses -qualitative researchers build toward theory from observations Rich Description -words and pictures are used, rather than numbers -quotes, field notes, interviews, videotapes Other Characteristics and Competencies -design of a qualitative study is emergent and flexible, responsive to changing conditions -sample selection is usually nonrandom, purposeful, and small as opposed to larger samples -the investigator also spends a large amount of time in the natural setting of the study, often in intense contact with the participants Desirable competencies include: -a questioning stance with regard to your work and life context (why are things the way they are?) -high tolerance for ambiguity; be flexible -be a careful observer -ask good questions -think inductively; draw from specific raw data to abstract concepts -comfort in writing Ch 2- Types of Qualitative Research Basic Qualitative Research -most common type of qual research is a basic, interpretive study -individuals construct reality in interaction with their social worlds -constructionism is this -the researcher is interested in understanding the meaning a phenomenon has for those involved -purpose is to understand how people make sense of their lives and their experiences -data is collected through interviews, observations, document analysis -all qualitative research is interested in how meaning is constructed, how people make sense of their lives and their worlds -goal of a basic study is to uncover and interpret these meanings Phenomenology -phenomenologists are interested in our lived experience -is a study of people’s conscious experience of their everyday life and social action -task of the pheno’gist is to depict the basic structure of experience (love, anger, betrayal) -a phenomenological interview is the primary method of data collection -prior to interviewing them, the researcher explores their own experiences to examine dimensions fo the experience and to become aware of personal prejudices, viewpoints -epoche “to refrain from judgment” Phenomenological reductionprocess of continually returning to the essence of the experience to derive the inner structure Horizontalizationprocess of laying out all the data and treating them all with equal weight -the data are then organized into clusters or themes Imaginative variationviewing the data from various perspectives -the product of a phenomenological study is a description that presents the essence of the phenomenon -it’s supposed to make you feel like you understand better what it’s like for someone to experience that - phenomenological approach is well suited for studying affective, emotional, intense human experiences Ethnography -focus on human society and culture -one has to spend time with the group being studied -the result of an ethnographic inquiry is cultural description -immersion in the site as a participant observer is the primary method of data collection -the heart of an ethnography is a thick description; a context that is thickly described -is not enough to only describe the cultural practices; researcher also depicts their understanding of the cultural meaning of the phenomenon Grounded Theory -investigator is the primary instrument of data collection -analysis assumes an inductive stance -end result is a theory that emerges from the data -the difference between grounded theory from qualitative research is its focus on building theory -substantive theory -it has a specificity -useful for addressing questions about process, or how something changes over time 1) Data is first guided by theoretical sampling analyst decides what data to collect 2)Data is analyzed using the constant comparative method one segment is compared with another to determine similarities/differences 3) Identification of a core category is the main conceptual element through which all other categories are connected the core category must appear frequently in the data, and must develop the theory Narrative Analysis -use of stories as data -text is analyzed for the meaning it has for its author -narrative research makes use of various approaches to analyzing stories -each approach examines how the story is constructed, what linguistic tools are used, the cultural context of the story -biographical approach; psychological; linguistic approach Critical Research (differs from the previous, which are interpretive) -it seeks not just to study and understand society, but to critique it and change society -power dynamics are at the heart of critical research -questions are asked about who has power, how it’s negotiated -focuses less on individuals than on context -raises questions about how power relations advance the interests of one group while oppressing others -it can be combined with other qualitative methodologies -often draws from feminist theory Participatory action research (PAR)- political empowerment of people through their involvement in the design of a research project Ch 3- Qualitative Case Study Research -case study is a form of qualitative research -case studies share the search for meaning; the researcher as the primary instrument of data collection/analysis, an inductive investigative strategy, and the product being richly descriptive Case Study Defined Case study- an in depth description and analysis of a bounded system Bounded System -a case study is a choice of what is to be studied whata bounded system; a single entity around which there are boundaries -the case is a phenomenon of some sort occurring in a bounded context -a case is a noun; a thing; an entity -if the phenomenon you’re interested in studying isn’t bounded then it’s not a case -ask how finite the data collection would be -if it is infinite (there is no end to it), then the phenomenon isn’t bounded enough to be a case -this type of qualitative research stands apart from ethnography, phenomenology, narrative research -other types of studies can be combined with the case study -all methods of gathering data can be used in a case study -case study research is a qualitative approach in which the investigator explores a bounded system over time, through in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of info and reports a case description and case-based themes Special Features Particularistic the case study focuses on a particular situation, event program -is a good design for practical problems, like questions, situations, confusing occurrences Descriptivethe end product of a case study is a thick description of the phenomenon under study Heuristicthe case study illuminates the reader’s understanding of the phenomenon under study -extends the reader’s experience, or confirm what is known -the uniqueness of a case study doesn’t lie much in the methods employed, but the questions asked Case study knowledge is: -more concrete; resonates with our own experience -more contextual; our experiences are rooted in context -more developed by reader interpretation; readers bring their own experience -based more on reference populations determined by the reader; readers have some population in mind Case study research is not: -casework; strategies for dealing with developmental problems -case method; instructional technique shown to students for problem solving situations -case history/records; tracing of a person or a group’s past -case study has an advantage over “how” and “Why” questions -case studies get as close to the subject of interest as they can, partly by means of direct observation in natural settings by their access to subjective factors -a case study might be selected for what it can reveal about a phenomenon, knowledge to which we wouldn’t have access otherwise -a case study is an intensive holistic descr’n and analysis of a single entity, phenomenon, or social unit Types of Qualitative Case Studies Historical and Observational Historicala study of the development of a particular organization over time -the researcher presents it from a historical perspective -histories are the preferred strategy when there is no access or control (Eg people are dead) Observationalmajor data gathering technique is participant observation -focus of the study is on a particular organization or some aspect of the org Life historyresearcher conducts interviews with one person for a first person narrative Intrinsic and Instrumental Intrinsicthe researcher is interested in the particular case itself Instrumentalexamined mainly to provide insight into an issue or to redraw a generalization -the case is on secondary interest Multisite Case Studies -when researchers conduct a study using more than one case -involves analyzing data from several cases and can be distinguished from the single case study that may have subunits embedded within -the more cases included in a study and the greater the variation, the more compelling an interpretation is likely to be -do fieldwork one site at a time to avoid confusion though Strengths and Limitations of Case Studies Strengths -is theoretically possible to predict behaviour in similar settings without actually observing the behave -is the best plan for answering the research questions; its strengths > limitations -it offers insights that expand its readers’ experiences -readers can learn vicariously through the researcher’s narrative description -the colorful description can create an image -what we learn in a particular case can be transferred to similar situations Limitations -a researcher may not have the time or money to conduct the research -the product may be too lengthy, too detailed, too involved -the sensitivity and integrity of the investigator, since they’re the primary instrument of data col’n/analy -the investigator is left to rely on their own instincts throughout most of the research -biases may also occur -issues of reliability, validity, generalizability Ch 4- Designing Your Study and Selecting a Sample Selecting a Topic -what are you curious about, why are things the way they are, what happens when something changes at work, or home, or in the neighbourhood -look at current or political issues, literature -theory might also suggest topics -problem can be derived from a theory by questioning whether a particular theory can be sustained in practice The Research Problem -raise a question about something that perplexes and challenges the mind -ask what you want to know in this study -in the research problem,translate your curiosity into a problem that can be addressed through research -compared to a funnel shape -then narrow it down, to direct the reader toward the specific question you have -also point out the lack of info; “despite the amount of research, little is known” -the gap in our knowledge is what will be addressed -purpose statement would then show what the study intends to do -research questions would then explain what the study will attempt to study/understand -are broad questions that identify areas to ask questions about -they are not the same as the question that gave rise to the study -the problem statement lays out the logic of the research study; comes after the intro -the intro is 5-10pgs, gives details about the topic, what is known, what research has been done, what concepts are important -essentially leads the reader through the topic to get to the place you want to land -problem statement is 1-2pgs -three important components; Contextthe topic that you’re interested in Gap what we don’t know Significancemaking it clear that this is a significant problem to address The Theoretical Framework -it’s often the lack of a clearly articulated theoretical framework that results in a rejected study proposal What is a Theoretical Framework? -underlies all research; theory is present in all qualitative studies -the system of concepts, assumptions, expectations, beliefs, theories that supports and informs research Identifying your Theoretical Framework -what is your disciplinary orientation -determines what you’re curious about, what puzzles you, what questions you ask -one of the clearest ways to identify your theoretical framework is to attend to the literature that’s related to the topic *Fig 4.1 for the framework* -theoretical framework indicates to the reader the topic you’re interested in -problem statement identifies what’s known, what aspect you’re focusing on, what’s not known, and also the purpose of the study Reviewing the Literature -the theoretical or conceptual writing in an area in which someone has collected and analyzed data -the qtn takes you to some literature, which sends you back to looking at the phenomenon of interest -claiming that there is no literature means there’s no way to study it, or you searched too narrowly -an investigator who ignores prior research risks duplicating an already done study or repeating the mistakes of other researchers Why Review the Literature -provides the foundation for contributing to the knowledge base -can demonstrate how the present study advances -can contribute to answering specific design questions -researchers can benefit how well certain data collection techniques may or may not have yielded meaningful data -references to previous literature may appear in 3 places: Introto build the case for doing the present study Literature Reviewliterature is synthesized and critiqued Findings of a studypoints out what the study contributes to the knowledge base of the field -most writers agree that becoming familiar with the background of a topic is best undertaken early in the research process Conducting and Writing Up a Literature Review -decide which resources should be obtained based on the following criteria: Is the author and authority on the topic; When was the report written; What exactly was written about; What is the quality of the source -obtain the full document, and begin to develop an annotated bib -know when to stop reviewing the literature; -when you turn to the reference list and are familiar with all resources -when you know the literature; studies, people, dates, theories, historical trends -most resources are organized according to particular themes -sometimes they’re organized chronologically Sample Selection 2 types; probability sampling where the investigator generalizes results from the sample to the population from which it was drawn (not justifiable in qualitative research) -non-probability sampling is most commonly used Purposefulbased on the assumption that the investigator wants to gain insight -sample is called because of their experience/competence Types of Purposeful Sampling Typical: selected because it reflects the average person or situation Unique: based on rare attributes of the phenomenon of interest -you’re interested because they’re unique or atypical Eg. Person in hs who became a professional athlete Maximum variation: patterns that emerge from great variation Eg. Those who rep the widest range of the characteristics of interest of study Convenience: based on time, money, location, availability Snowball: most common; you select key participants, and then ask them to refer you to somebody Theoretical sampling: analyst jointly collects and analyzes data and decides what to collect next and where to find them to develop his theory as it emerges How Many in the Sample? -depends on the questions being asked, the data being gathered, the analysis in progress, the resources you have -if the purpose is to maximize info, the sampling is terminated when no info comes in -thus redundancy is the primary criterion Sample in Case Studies -two levels of sampling are usually necessary; first, we select the case to be studied -then we do sampling within the case itself -a sample within the case needs to be selected either before the data collection begins, or while the data are being gathered Ch 5- Conducting Effective Interviews Interview Data -main purpose is to find out what is in and on someone else’s mind -to find out from them things we can’t directly observe (feelings, thoughts, intentions) -interviews are necessary when we’re interested in past events that can’t be replicated -also used when conducting intensive case studies of a few selected individuals Types of Interviews By Structure *Table 5.1* -there are three types of interviews that vary according to the amount of struct
More Less

Related notes for ADMS 4421

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit