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Administrative Studies
ADMS 4495
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ADMS 4495 – Making the Team Chapter 2 – Performance and Productivity - Teams could benefit from a model or set of guidelines that would tell them how to organize and how to deal with inevitable threats to their goal achievement Descriptive-Prescriptive Model 1) Description - The interpretation of events so that managers can come up with an accurate analysis of the situation 2) Prescription - A recommendation on what to do to fix the situation *Three essential things: 1) Perform effectively 2) Build and sustain motivation 3) Coordinate people Pg. 22 Team context – the larger organizational setting within which the team does its work, the design of the team in terms of its internal function and the culture of the team - Teams rely on their organization to provide resources, funding and individuals for membership Pg. 23 Organizational Context – includes basic structure of the organization (lateral, hierarchical), the information system, the education system, and the reward system - Organizational policy and material and physical resources that are required to accomplish group tasks - Team needs a supportive organizational context – recognizes their existence; responds to their requests for information, resources, and action Team Design – the observable structure of the team - Refers to the leadership style within the team, functional roles, communication patterns, composition of the team, and training of members - Design of a team is a deliberate decision of choice made by managers Team Culture – the unstated, implicit aspects of the team that are not discussed in a formal fashion and shape behaviour - Influences: member roles, norms and patterns of behaving and thinking - Norm: set of rules that guides member’s behaviour - Goal Contagion: a form of norm setting in which people adopt a goal held by other; more likely between people who belong to the same group Pg. 24 Essential Conditions for Successful Team Performance 1) Bring adequate knowledge and skill to bear on the task 2) Exert sufficient motivation and effort to accomplish the task at an acceptable level of performance 3) Coordinate their activities and communication Knowledge, Skill and Ability - Teams must have knowledge, skill and ability (KSA’s) 5 Crucial Skills for Team Members 1) Conflict Resolution - Recognize and encourage desirable team conflict, but discourage undesirable ones 2) Collaborative Problem Solving - Recognize the obstacles to collaborative group problem solving and implement appropriate corrective actions 3) Communication - Listen nonevaluatively, and appropriately use active listening techniques 4) Goal Setting and Performance Management - Establish specific, challenging and accepted team goals 5) Planning and Task Coordination - Coordinate and synchronize activities, information and task interdependencies between team members Pg. 25 Team Member Skills - Effective team performance entails conscientiousness - Also requires interpersonal skills, decision-making skills, and problem-solving skills - Teams increase performance pressure and anxiety Choking Under Pressure - Occurs when a person’s performance declines despite incentives for optimal performance Learning Curves and Expertise - The presence of other people enhances performance for well-learned behaviours (but hinders performance for less well-learned behaviours) 1) Challenge – if someone is an expert 2) Threat – if someone is not an expert Pg. 26 Social Facilitation vs. Social Inhibition Social Facilitation – the predictable enhancement in performance that occurs when people are in the presence of others Social Inhibition – occurs when people are the centre of attention and are concerned with discrepancies between their performance and st0061ndards of excellence 1) Expertise is one way: expert are trained to focus on what matters most 2) Practice and rehearsal is another strategy: it modifies the behavioral response hierarchy, so that the desired response becomes second nature - Peer pressure obstructs performance Pg. 27 Flow: Between Boredom and Choking Flow – a psychological state in which a person is highly engaged in a task – that the person track of time, and the process of engaging the task is its own reinforcement Stress versus Challenge - Challenge is experienced when there is an opportunity for self-growth with available coping strategies for coping - The same level of goal difficulty impaired performance and adaptation to change when people appraised the situation as a “threat” but it improved adaptation to change when people appraised the situation as a “challenge” Motivation and Effort - Motivation comes from within a person and from external factors - Group Potency: unable to rely on others and unable to affect the environment; pure cognitive ability Pg. 28 Motivation Gains - Gains in which the less capable member works harder (Kohler Effect) - Kohler Effect: social comparison (when someone thinks that their teammate is more capable) and the feeling that one`s efforts is indispensible to the group - The weakest member of the group would tend to work harder than others Social Loafing - People in groups often do not work as hard as they do when alone - Demonstrated in many cultures: India, Japan and Taiwan Free Riders - Free riders benefit from the efforts of others while contributing little or nothing themselves Three Main Causes of Free Riding 1) Diffusion of responsibility - Deindividuation – a psychological state in which a person does not feel individual responsibility - The person would less likely to perform or contribute - “Bystander Effect” 2) A reduced sense of self-efficacy - Team member may feel they lack the ability to positively influence a team’s outcome - Social Striving effect – they work harder to achieve their goals 3) “Sucker Aversion” - Self-fulfilling prophecy: is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true - Protestant Work Ethic (PWE): hard work leads to economic success Pg. 31 Suggestions for Enhancing Successful Team Performance Positive Illusion Bias – unwarranted beliefs in one’s own superiority, can cause chaos in teams Reward Team Members for Performance – Incentives (symbolic rewards or financial rewards) - Important for team members to feel appreciated Strengthen Team Cohesion – cohesive teams are less inclined to loaf Increase Personal Responsibility – when teams set their own performance goals, they are less likely to loaf Team Charters – develops objectives and practices; written and signed by members Coordination Strategies - Team must coordinate the skills, efforts and actions of its member in order to effectively enact team strategy Use Single-Digit Teams – teams should be less than 10 members Have an Agenda Train Team Members Together – opportunity to coordinate their strategies; to build trust Practice Minimize Links in Communication Set Clear Standards – performance appraisals; people receive clear informative feedbacks Performance Criteria Productivity – team productivity requires that the team have a clear goal and adapt accordingly as new information arrives, goals change, and organizational priorities shift - Productivity is highly correlated with its goals, as well as the ability of the team to adapt, change and accommodate the goals in the face of new information, changing organizational priorities and the changing marketplace Cohesion – to stick together; processes that keep members of a team Integration – Equifinality – a team can reach the same outcome from various initial conditions and by a variety of means Team Performance Equation AP = PP + S- T AP = actual productiv
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