Leadership skills are widely considered critical to organizational success and companies that manage to effectively develop leadership capabilities tend to outperform their competitors. Management: the process of administering and coordinating resources effectively and efficiently in an effort to achieve the organization"s goals. Efficiency: using the fewest inputs to produce a given level of output. Effectiveness: the pursuit and achievement of goals that are appropriate for an organization. Managing includes the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources in the effort to achieve organizational goals. The traditional view of the role of managers was that managers were able to reflect systematically on information before making decisions and that their job was relatively clear and narrow. Henry mintzberg"s study of manager"s found that managers engaged in a variety of unpatterned short-duration activities, and the constant interruptions suggested that there was little time for systematic reflection. Most important, mintzberg offered classification of various roles that managers play.