ADMS 1500 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Contribution Margin, Earnings Before Interest And Taxes, Fixed Cost
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The Hampshire Company manufactures umbrellas that sell for$12.50 each. In 2014, the company made and sold 60,000 umbrellas.The company had fixed manufacturing costs of $216,000. It also hadfixed costs for administration of $79,525. The per-unit costs ofeach umbrella are as follows:
Direct Materials: $3.00
Direct Labor: $1.50
Variable Manufacturing Overhead: $0.40
Variable Selling Expenses: $1.10
Using the information above, perform a cost-volume-profit (CVP)analysis by completing the steps below.
1. Compute net income before tax.
2. Compute the unit contribution margin in dollars and thecontribution margin ratio for one umbrella.
3. Calculate the break-even point in units and dollars ofrevenue.
4. Calculate the margin of safety:
In units
In sales dollars
As a percentage
5. Calculate the degree of operating leverage.
6. Assume that sales will increase by 20% in 2015. Calculate thepercentage of before-tax income for this increase. Providecalculations to prove that your percentage increase is correctbased on the operating leverage calculated in step 5.
7. Compute the number of umbrellas that Hampshire is required tosell if it plans to earn $150,000 in income before taxes by usingthe target income formula. Proof your calculation.
8. A company that specializes in tours in England has offered topurchase 5,000 umbrellas at $11 each from Hampshire. The variableselling costs of these additional units will be $1.30 as opposed to$1.10 per unit. Also, this production activity will incur another$15,000 of fixed administrative costs. Should Hampshire agree tosell these additional 5,000 umbrellas to the touring business?Provide calculations to support your decision.
Requirement 1 | ||||
Units | Price | Totals | ||
Sales | X | $ | $ | |
Variable Costs | X | $ | $ | |
Fixed Costs | $ | |||
Net Income | $ | |||
Requirement 2 | ||||
Contribution Margin per Unitin Dollars = Selling Price â Variable Costs | ||||
Selling Price | Variable Costs | Contribution Margin per Unit | ||
Contribution Margin Ratio =Contribution Margin/Selling Price | ||||
Contribution Margin | Selling Price | Contribution Margin Ratio | ||
Requirement 3 | ||||
Break-Even Point = Fixed Costs/ Contribution Margin | ||||
Fixed Costs | Contribution Margin | Break-Even Point in Units (Rounded) | ||
Break-Even Point in Units XSelling Price per Unit = Break-Even Point Sales | ||||
Break-Even Point in Units | Selling Price per Unit | Break-Even Point in Sales (Rounded) | ||
Requirement 4A | ||||
Margin of Safety in Units =Current Unit Sales â Break-Even Point in Unit Sales | ||||
Current Unit Sales | Break-Even Point in Sales | Margin of Safety in Units | ||
Requirement 4B | ||||
Margin of Safety in Dollars =Current Sales in Dollars â Break-Even Point Sales in Dollars | ||||
Current Sales in Dollars | Break-Even Point in Dollars | Margin of Safety in Dollars | ||
Requirement 4C | ||||
Margin of Safety as aPercentage = Margin of Sales in Units / Current Unit Sales | ||||
Margin of Safety in Units | Current Unit Sales | Margin of Safety Percentage | ||
Requirement 5 | ||||
Degree of Operating Leverage =Contribution Margin / Operating Income | ||||
Contribution Margin | Operating Income | Operating Leverage | ||
Requirement 6 | ||||
Units | $ Per Unit | Totals | ||
Sales | X | $ | $ | |
Variable Costs | X | $ | $ | |
Fixed Costs | $ | |||
Net Income | $ | |||
Operating Leverage | Times % Increase | Increase would be XX% | ||
Prior Income | $ | From Part 1 | ||
Increase | $ | Prior Income X XX% Above | ||
Total | $ | |||
Requirement 7 | ||||
Targeted Income = (Fixed Costs+ Target Income) / Contribution Margin | ||||
Fixed Costs + Target Income | Divided by Contribution Margin | # of Units (Rounded) | ||
Fixed Costs | $ | |||
Target Income | $ | |||
Total | $ | $ | X | |
# of Units Above X $ Per Unit | ||||
Proof | Revenue | XX,XXX X $XX.XX | $ | |
Variable Costs | XX,XXX X $X.XX | $ | ||
Contribution Margin | $ | |||
Fixed Costs | $ | |||
Net Income | $ | |||
Requirement 8 | ||||
Sales Mix | ||||
Current | Specialty | Total | ||
Expected Sales Units | X | X | ||
Revenue = Sales X Price | $ | $ | $ | |
Variable Costs X Units | $ | $ | $ | |
Contribution Margin | $ | $ | $ | |
Fixed Costs | $ | $ | $ | |
Operating Income | $ | |||
Prior Net Income FromRequirement 1 | $ | |||
Additional Operating Income | (Operating Income Above Less Prior Income) | $ | ||
Decision With Explanation |
Shown here is an income statement in thetraditional format for a firm with a sales volume of 7,900 units.Cost formulas also are shown: |
Revenues | $ | 34,500 | |
Cost of goods sold ($5,600 + $2.2/unit) | 22,980 | ||
Gross profit | $ | 11,520 | |
Operating expenses: | |||
Selling ($1,180 +$0.1/unit) | 1,970 | ||
Administration ($3,550 +$0.2/unit) | 5,130 | ||
Operating income | $ | 4,420 | |
| | ||
the optional account names for the three boxes under variableexpense are:
Requirement 1: |
Prepare an income statement in the contributionmargin format. (Omit the "$" sign in yourresponse.) |
revenues | $ | |
Variable expenses: | ||
cost of good sold | $ | |
selling expense | ||
administrative expense | ||
Total variable expenses | ||
Contribution margin | $ | |
Fixed expenses: | ||
costof good sold | $ | |
admistratitve expenses | ||
selling expenses | ||
Total fixed expenses | ||
operating income | $ | |
| ||
Requirement 2: |
Calculate the contribution margin per unit andthe contribution margin ratio. (Omit the "$" and "%" signs inyour response. Round contribution margin per unit to 2 decimalplaces and contribution margin ratio to whole number.) |
Contribution margin per unit | $ |
Contribution margin ratio | % |
Requirement 3: | |
(a) | Calculate the firm's operating income (or loss)if the volume changed from 7,900 units to 11,850 units.(Do not round yourintermediate calculations. Round your answer to the nearest dollaramount. Omit the "$" sign in your response.) |
operating income | $ |
(b) | Calculate the firm's operating income (or loss)if the volume changed from 7,900 units to 3,950 units. (Do not round your intermediatecalculations. Round your answer to the nearest dollar amount. Inputall amount as positive values. Omit the "$" sign in yourresponse.) |
operating income | $ |
Requirement 4: | |
Refer to your answer to requirement 1 for total revenues of$34,500. | |
(a) | Calculate the firm%u2019s operating income (orloss) if unit selling price and variable expenses per unit do notchange, and total revenues increase by $10,500. (Do not round your intermediatecalculations. Round your answer to the nearest dollar amount. Omitthe "$" sign in your response.) |
operating income | $ |
(b) | Calculate the firm's operating income (or loss)if unit selling price and variable expenses per unit do not change,and total revenues decrease by $3,000. (Do not round your intermediatecalculations. Round your answer to the nearest dollar amount. Inputthe amount as positive value. Omit the "$" sign in yourresponse.) |
operating income | $ |
Basic information | |||
Exhibit 1 Hallstead Jewelers | |||
Income Statements for YearsEnded January 31 (thousands of dollars) | |||
2003 | 2004 | 2006 | |
Sales | $9,000,000 | $8,000,000 | $11,000,000 |
Cost of goods sold | 4,050,000 | 3,600,000 | 4,950,000 |
Gross margin | $4,950,000 | $4,400,000 | $6,050,000 |
Expenses | |||
Selling expense | |||
Salaries | 2,021,000 | 2,081,000 | 4,085,000 |
Commissions | 450,000 | 400,000 | 550,000 |
Advertising | 254,000 | 250,000 | 257,000 |
Administrative expenses | 418,000 | 425,000 | 535,000 |
Rent | 420,000 | 420,000 | 840,000 |
Depreciation | 84,000 | 84,000 | 142,000 |
Miscellaneous expenses | 53,000 | 93,000 | 122,000 |
Total expenses | $3,700,000 | $3,753,000 | $6,531,000 |
Net income | $1,250,000 | $647,000 | $(481,000) |
Exhibit 2 Hallstead JewelersOperating Statistics | |||
2003 | 2004 | 2006 | |
Sales space (square feet) | 10,000 | 10,000 | 15,000 |
Sales per square foot | $900 | $800 | $733 |
Sales tickets | 5,000 | 5,000 | 7,000 |
Average sales ticket | $1,800 | $1,600 | $1,571 |
Assumptions:
Sales price per ticket = $1,572
Variable cost per unit = $786 (cost of goods sold of $707 +Sales commissions of $79)
Complete the table below:
Alternative #1 | Per unit | Total | Per unit | Total |
# of sales tickets | 7000 | |||
Selling price per ticket | $1,572 | $11,000,000 | ||
Variable cost per ticket | $786 | $5,500,000 | ||
Contribution margin per ticket | $786 | $5,500,000 | ||
Total fixed costs | 5,981,000 | |||
Net income | $(481,000) | |||
Change in net income if accept alternative | ||||
Breakeven point in units | 7,610 |
Review of Question #4 requirements. Increase advertisingby $20,000, increase sales revenue (volume) by 2%.
For each question, answer yes or no for each piece ofinformation listed.
Information | For this alternative only, is there a change in this item thataffects calculation of net income? Yes or No | For this alternative only, is there a change in this item thateffects the calculation of the new breakeven point? Yes or No |
Selling price per unit | ||
Variable cost per unit | ||
Total fixed costs | ||
Net income | ||
Sales volume |
Complete the table below:
Alternative #3 | Per unit | Total | Per unit | Total |
# of sales tickets | 7000 | |||
Selling price per ticket | $1,572 | $11,000,000 | ||
Variable cost per ticket | $786 | $5,500,000 | ||
Contribution margin per ticket | $786 | $5,500,000 | ||
Total fixed costs | 5,981,000 | |||
Net income | $(481,000) | |||
Change in net income if accept alternative | ||||
Breakeven point in units | 7,610 |
Alternatives | Change in Net Income | New Breakeven point in units | Change in Breakeven point in units |
#1 Decrease SP, Increase sales volume | |||
#2 Eliminate sales commissions | Increases by $550,000 | 6,914 | Decreases by 696 |
#3 increase Fixed costs by $20,000 to get increase of 2% salesrevenue (volume) |