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Chapter 7

ADMS 2400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Nonverbal Communication, Voicemail, Verbal Behavior


Department
Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 2400
Professor
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7 Effective Communication
Kreitner
Communication: Interpersonal exchange of information and understanding.
Perceptual Model of Communication: Process in which receivers create their own meaning.
Sender: Individual, group, or organization that desires or attempts to communicate with a particular
receiver.
Encoding: Communication begins when a sender encodes an idea or thought. Encoding
using words, numbers, gestures, non-verbal cues such as facial expressions, or pictures.
The Message: The output of encoding is a message.
Messages may trigger emotional or affective reactions
Messages need to match the medium used to transmit them
Selecting a Medium: People may communicate through a variety of media
o Face-to-face
o Telephone calls
o Electronic mail or email
o Voice mail
o Video conferencing
o Written memos or letters
o Photographs or drawings
o Meetings

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o Bulletin boards
o Computer output
o Charts or graphs
Receiver:
Decoding: Receiver’s version of encoding. Translating verbal, oral, or visual aspects of a
message into a form that can be interpreted.
Creating Meaning: Receivers create the meaning of a message in their head. Receivers act
to their own interpretations not the communicators.
Feedback: The receiver becomes the encoder.
Noise: Interference with the transmission and understanding of a message.
Barriers to Communication with the Communication Process
Sender Barrier: No message gets sent (Sender afraid to voice opinion)
Encoding Barrier: The message is not expressed correctly (Thinking of a word of how to express how you
feel about something)
Medium Barrier: The communication channel is blocked (You never get through to someone via the
phone)
Decoding Barrier: The recipient doesn’t understand the message (You do not understand the figure of
speech your boss tells you, due to English not being your first language)
Receive Barrier: No message gets received (Did not listen to your supervisor due to you socializing with
a co-worker)
Feedback Barrier: The recipient doesn’t respond enough (Provide directions for someone, but they do
not listen or repeat it back to you)
Barriers to Effective Communication
Personal Barriers: Any individual attribute that hinders communication
Variable skills in communicating effectively
o Some are better communicators than others
o Communication can be enhanced with training
Variations in how information is processed and interpreted
Variations in interpersonal trust
o Instead of focusing on the message, a lack of trust is likely to cause people to be
defensive and question the accuracy of what is being said.
Stereotypes and prejudices
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o The use of stereotypes causes people to misperceive and recall information.
Big Egos
o Egos can cause political battles, turf wars, and pursuit of power, credit, and resources.
Poor Listening Skills
o Student asking the same questions asked minutes earlier
Natural tendency to evaluate other’s messages
o Natural tendency to evaluate messages from our own point of view
Inability to listen with understanding
Non-verbal communication
o When facial expression and gestures are consistent with the intent of a message.
Physical Barriers: Distance between employees can interfere with effective communication. Work and
office noise are additional barriers. Quality of telephone lines or crashed computer represents physical
barriers that impact our ability to communicate with information technology.
Semantic Barriers:
Semantics: Study of words. We need to complete this right away. Means you and your co-
workers, just you or you, your co-workers and your boss to?
Jargon: Language or terminology that is specific to a particular profession, group, or company.
Choosing Media: Contingency Perspective
Information Richness: Information-carrying capacity of data. New understanding means Rich, little
understanding means low in richness.
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