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Chapter 14

ADMS 2400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: World Politics, Time Management, Absenteeism


Department
Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 2400
Professor
Sabrina Deutsch Salamon
Chapter
14

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Organizational Change
FORCES FOR CHANGE
No company today is in a particularly stable
environment.
- Nature of the workforce: multicultural
environment, demographic changes, immigration
and outsourcing
- Technology: advancing
- Economic Shocks: stocks, interest rates
- Competition: competitors are fast, innovative and
captures market quickly
- Social Trends: being “green” no longer an option
as consumers want to save the environment
- World Politics: recession
OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE
Organization have many opportunities to engage in change.
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Who is responsible for managing activities in an organization?
Change agents: people who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change
activities.
APPROACHES TO MANAGING CHANGE
Lewin’s Three-Step Model
Unfreezing: change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and
group conformity
Moving: efforts to get employees involved in the change process
Refreezing: stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces
o Status quo is the current situation other than the unfreezing process
o Driving forces: force that direct behaviour away from the status quo
o Restraining forces: forces that hinder movement away from the status quo
Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change
Kotter’s model exhibits Lewin’s Model; step 1-4 represent unfreezing, step 5-7 represent moving
and the last step represents refreezing.
Action Research
Action research: change process based on the systematic collection of data then selection of a
change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. (more scientific method)
1. Diagnosis: find specifically what is going on
2. Analysis: primary concerns, problem areas, possible actions
3. Feedback: sharing with the employees what was found to get their opinion
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4. Action: specific actions carried out to fix the problem
5. Evaluation: plan’s effectiveness, using initial data as benchmark
Benefits of Action Research:
- Problem-focused as it only looks at the problems
- Involves employees so less resistance to change
Appreciative Inquiry
Identifies the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built
on to improve performance. It focuses on organization’s successes rather than on its
problems.
The 4 D’s:
- Discovery: discovery what people (employees) think are the strengths of the organization
- Dreaming: speculate on possible futures for the organization by employees
- Design: based on dreaming, focus on finding a common vision on unique qualities and
organization’s look
- Destiny: discuss how the organization is going to fulfill its dream, and write action plans
and develop strategies.
RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
Individual Resistance
- Self-interested: people worry
that they will lose something
of value if change happens
- Misunderstanding and lack of
trust: fear of cost
outweighing the gains of
change. This is due to trust.
- Different assessments:
perception of the outcomes of
the changes.
- Low tolerance for change: do
not have the skills and
behaviour required of the
new situation
Feeling cynical about the change process as they have been through years of changes and
nothing to them have changed.
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