ADMS 2511 Chapter Notes - Chapter tg1: Random-Access Memory, Terabyte, Computer Memory

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ADMS 2511 TG 1 TG 2
Introduction
o Hardware consists of the following
Central processing unit (CPU)
Manipulates the data and controls the tasks performed by other
components
Primary storage
Temporarily stores data and program instructions during
processing
Secondary storage
Stores data and programs for future use
Input technologies
Accept data and instructions and convert them to a form that the
computer can understand
Output technologies
Present data and information in a form that people can
understand
Communication technologies
Provide for the flow of data from external computer networks to
the CPU, and from CPU to computer networks
Strategic Hardware Issues
o Exploiting hardware is essential to achieving competitive advantage
Exploitation comes from thoughtful consideration of following questions
How will org keep up with rapid price/performance advancements
How should org. determine need for new hardware
infrastructures
Portablecomputers and advanced communications technologies
enable employee to work from anywhere, will these benefit
employees and org?
Computer hierarchy
o Supercomputer indicates fastest computers available at any given time
E. Tita, IBM’s Blue gee
Used by large organizations to execute computationally demanding tasks
involving large data sets
Supercomputers typically run military and scientific applications
Also used for commercial applications where huge amounts of
data must be analyzed
o Large banks
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o Mainframe computers
Popular in large enterprises for extensive computing applications accessed
by thousands of users simultaneously
Ex. Airline reservation system, corporate payroll programs,
website transaction processing, student grade calculation
Perform at teraflop speeds and handle millions of transactions per
day
o Midrange computers
Minicomputers larger midrange computers
Small, inexpensive, compact computers that perform same
function as mainframe computers, but more limited extent
o Minicomputers are type of server
Computer that supports computer networks and
enable users to share files, software, etc.
o Microcomputers
Smallest and least expensive category of general-purpose computers
Desktop PCs
Familiar microcomputer system standard tool for business
o Generally includes
CPU
Connected monitor/keyboard
Gigabytes of primary storage
Rewriteable CD-ROM/DVD drives
Terabytes of secondary storage
Thin-client systems
Desktop computer systems that do not offer full functionality of
PC
o PC would be called fat client
Less complex, due to no locally installed software
Access application from a server than a local disk drive
Benefits
o Fast application
o Centralized management
o Lower cost of ownership
o Easier installation, management, etc
Disadvantage
o If network fails, users cannot do much
Due to no local software
Laptop and Notebook Computers
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Small, light weight microcomputers
o Designed to be as convenient and easy to transport
o Provide users with access to processing power and data
outside office environment
Cost more than desktops
Netbooks
Small, lightweight, portable computer that is energy efficient and
relatively inexpensive
Optimized for internet-based services
o Browsing, emailing
Tablet computers
Complete computer contained entirely in flat touchscreen that
operates via stylus, or finger tip
Input and Output Technologies
o Input technologies enable people and other otechnologies to enter dat into a
computer
Two main types of input devices
Human data entry device
o Requires human effort to input data
Keyboard, mouse, trackball, etc
Also voice recognition
Source data automation device
o Input data with minimal human intervention
Speeds up data collection, reduces error, etc.
Ex. Barcode readers, ATM, etc.
Ex. Pg. 396-397
o Output generated by computer can be transmitted ot user via multiple output
devices
Monitors, printers, etc.
o Ex. Pg. 398
o Multimedia technology
Computer-based integration of text, sound, images, animation, etc.
Represents collection of various input and output technologies
o Merges capabilities of computer with televisions
High quality multimedia processing requires powerful microprocessors
and memory capacity
Central processing unit
o CPU performs actual oputatio or uer ruhig iside a oputer
Cpu is a microprocessor
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