ADMS 2511 Chapter Notes -Software As A Service, Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum, Scada

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CHAPTER1:IntroductiontoInformationSystems
● Informationtechnologyrelatestoanycomputerbasedtoolthatpeopleusetowork
withinformationandtosupporttheinformationandinformationprocessingneedsof
anorganization
● Aninformationsystemcollects,processes,stores,analyzes,anddisseminates
informationforaspecificpurpose
● informeduser:apersonknowledgeableaboutinformationsystemsandinformation
technology
○ tendtogetmorevaluefromwhatevertechnologiestheyuse
○ youwillbenefitmorefromyourorganization’sITapplicationsbecauseyouwill
understandwhatis“behind:thoseapplications
○ youwillbeinapositiontoenhancethequalityofyourorganization’sIT
applicationswithyourinput
○ youwillquicklybeinapositiontorecommendtheITapplicationsthatyour
organizationwilluse
○ beinganinformeduserwillkeepyouabreastofbothnewinformation
technologiesandrapiddevelopmentsinexistingtechnologies
○ youwillunderstandhowusingITcanimproveyourorganization’sperformance
andteamworkaswellasyourownproductivity
● Adigitalnomadissomeonewhousesinformationtechnologiessuchassmart
phones,wirelessinternetaccess,andwebbasedapplicationstoworkremotely.
○ digitalnomadshavelocationindependence,andtheyfrequentlyworkas
knowledgeworkerssuchas(page8) 
● ListofITjobsonpage9
● difficultyinmanaginginformationsystems
○ informationssystemshaveenormousstrategicvaluetoorganizations.some
firmsrelysoheavilythatifthesystemisdown,thefirmcannotfunction
○ veryexpensivetoacquire,operate,andmaintain
○ theevolutionofthemanagementinformationsystem(MIS)functionwithinthe
organization(page10)
endusercomputing:computersarelocatedinalldepartmentsand
almostallemployeesusecomputersintheirwork.twocomponents:
■ enduserdataentry,reportingandinquiry
■ enduserdevelopment,whereusersdevelopusablesystems
○ 
● themanagementinformationsystem’sfunctionalareadealswiththeplanningfor
andthedevelopment,management,anduseofinformationtechnologytoolstohelp
peopleperformallthetasksrelatedtoinformationprocessingandmanagement
● dataitemsareadescriptionofthings,events,activities,andtransactionsthatare
recorded,classified,andstoredbutarenotorganizedtoconveyanyspecificmeaning
○ canbenumbers,letters,figures,sounds,andimages
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● informationisdatathathavebeenorganizedsothattheyhavemeaningandvalueto
therecipient
● knowledgeconsistsofdataand/orinformationthathavebeenorganizedand
processedtoconveyunderstanding,experience,accumulatedlearning,andexpertise
astheyapplytoacurrentproblem
● Acomputerbasedinformationsystem(CBIS):isaninformationsystemthatuses
computertechnologytoperformsomeorallofitsintendedtasks.
○ informationtechnologycomponents:
hardware:consistsofdevicessuchastheprocessor,monitor,
keyboard,andprinter
softwareisaprogramorcollectionofprogramsthatenablethe
hardwaretoprocessdata
■ databaseisacollectionofrelatedfilesortablescontainingdata
■ anetworkisaconnectingsystem(wirelineorwireless)thatpermits
differentcomputerstoshareresources
■ proceduresaretheinstructionsforcombiningtheabovecomponentsin
ordertoprocessinformationandgeneratethedesiredoutput
■ peoplearethoseindividualswhousethehardwareandsoftware,
interfacewithit,oruseitsoutput
○ page14
● Anappisacomputerprogramdesignedtosupportaspecifictaskorbusinessprocess
○ thecollectionofapplicationsystemsinasingledepartmentisreferredtoasa
departmentalinformationsystem 
Enterpriseresourceplanning(ERP)systemsaredesignedtocorrectalackof
communicationamongthefunctionalareaISs.
○ ERPsystemstightlyintegratethefunctionalareaISsviaacommondatabase.
Indoingso,theyenhancecommunicationsamongthefunctionalareasofan
organization
Transactionprocessingsystem(TPS)supportsthemonitoring,collection,storage,
andprocessingofdataforaparticularfunctionalarea
○ informationsystemdefinitionofatransaction:atransactionisanythingthat
changesthefirm’sdatabase.
○ 
● supportfororganizationalemployees(page18)
● howdoesITimpactorganizations(2022
CHAPTER2:ORGANIZATIONALSTRATEGY,COMPETITIVEADVANTAGE,AND
INFORMATIONSYSTEMS
competitiveedgeisanadvantageovercompetitorsinsomemeasuressuchascosts,
quality,orspeed;itleadstocontrolofamarketandtolargerthanaverageprofits
● Abusinessprocessisanongoingcollectionofrelatedactivitiesthatcreatea
productoraserviceofvaluetotheorganization,itsbusinesspartners,and/orits
customers.
○ hasinputsandoutputs,anditsactivitiescanbemeasured
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● manybusinessprocessescutacrossmultiplefunctionalareas;theyarecross
functionalbusinessprocesses,meaningnosinglefunctionalareaisresponsiblefor
theirexecution
○ forcrossfunctionalprocessestobecompleted,eachfunctionalareamust
executeitsspecificprocessstepsinacoordinated,collaborativeway
● Anorganization’sbusinessprocessescancreateacompetitiveadvantageifthey
enablethecompanytoinnovateortoexecutebetterthanitscompetitors
● Businessprocessreengineering(BRP)isastrategyforimprovingtheefficiency
andeffectivenessofanorganization’sbusinessprocesses.
○ Thekeyisforenterprisestoexaminetheirbusinessprocessesfroma“clean
sheet”perspectiveandthendeterminehowtheycanbestreconstructthose
processestoimprovetheirbusinessfunctions
○ canbeoverwhelmingtomanyaspectsoftheorganization(40)
● BusinessProcessManagement(BPM)isamanagementtechniquethatincludes
methodsandtoolstosupportthedesign,analysis,implementation,management,and
optimizationofbusinessprocesses
○ initiallyhelpscompaniesimproveprofitabilitybydecreasingcostsand
increasingrevenues
○ overtime,BPMcancreateacompetitiveadvantagebyimproving
organizationalflexibility
○ BPMistheresultofalessradical,disruptive,andmoreincrementalapproach
ofBPR
● marketpressures:
○ globalization:theintegrationandinterdependenceofeconomicsocial,
cultural,andecologicalfacetsoflife,madepossiblebyrapidadvancein
informationtechnology.
■ friedman’sflattenerspage43
○ changingnatureoftheworkforce:theworkforceinadevelopedcountryis
becomingmorediversified.increasingnumbersofwomen,singleparents,
minorities,andpersonwithdisabilitiesarenowemployedinalltypesof
positions.
■ ITiseasingtheintegrationoftheseemployeesintothetraditional
workforce
○ powerfulcustomers:Consumersophisticationandexpectationsincreaseas
customersbecomemoreknowledgeableabouttheproductsandservicesthey
acquire.
● technologypressures:
TechnologicalinnovationandObsolescence.newandimproved
technologiesrapidlycreateorsupportsubstitutesforproducts,alternative
serviceoptions,andsuperquality.Asaresult,today’sstateoftheartproducts
maybeobsoletetomorrow
○ informationoverload:Theinternetandtheothertelecommunications
networksarebringingafloodofinformationtomanagers. 
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