Jagjeet Kaur Dhawan
Training and Development
Training Design: involves the process of preparing and planning events to facilitate learning.
The design of training and development programs involves many important decisions,
such as whether to purchase a training program from a vendor or design it in-house;
what content to include; what training methods to use
Training objective: is a statement of what trainees are expected to be able to do after a
training program, and answers the question.
the emphasis of training is usually learning, on-the-job behaviour, and job performance
Learning involves the process of acquiring new knowledge, skills, and attitudes, while
performance involves the use of these new skills, knowledge, and attitudes on the job.
Training objectives are an important link between the needs analysis stage and the other
stages of the training and development process
Writing Training Objectives:
Writing training objectives involves more than making lists of behaviour verbs such as
“recognize” and “evaluate”
The real skill is the ability to rework needs analysis information into performance
A training objective should contain four key elements of the desired outcomes as follows:
1. Who is to perform the desired behaviour? : Employees and managers are the
easiest to identify. In a training situation more accurate descriptors might be “all
first level supervisors,” anyone conducting selection interviews,” or “all
employees with more than one month of experience”.
- The goal of the instructor is to maximize the efficiency with which all trainees
achieve the specified objectives, not just present the information.
2. What is the actual behaviour to be employed to demonstrate mastery of the
training content or objective?
- Actions described by words like “type”, “run”, and “calculate” can be
- Other mental activities such as comprehension and analysis can also be
described in measurable ways
3. Where and when is the behaviour to be demonstrated and evaluated (ie. Under
- These could include “during a 60 minute typing test,”
- The tools, equipment, information, and other source materials for training
should be specified.
- Included in the list may be things the trainee may not use, such as
4. What is the standard by which the behaviour will be judged?
- Is the trainee expected to type 60 words per minute with fewer than three
- Can the trainee list five out of six purposes for training objectives?
An example of training objective that includes the four elements is as follows:
The sales representative (who) will be able to make 10 calls a day to new customers
(what) in the territory assigned (where and when)
When the four elements are included in a training objective, the final written objective should
contain three key components:
- What the trainee will be able to do after the training. What work behaviour the
trainee will be able to display
- The tools, time, and situation under which the trainee is expected to perform
the behaviour. Where and when the behaviour will occur
- The level of acceptance performance or the standard or criteria against which
performance will be judged.
Representative workers should be involved in the development of the training objectives.
Training objective contains an observable action with a measurable criterion outlining the
conditions of performance.
Once training objectives have been developed, the next step is to design whether a
training program should be designed in house by the HR or training staff or by an
external consultant or vendor
The purchase or design decision:
Once the training objectives have been developed, the organization faces a make-or-
It is more economical for an organization to purchase these materials, packaged in a
professional format, than to develop the materials themselves, which in many cases will
be used once or twice.
Most organizations do not design training courses in basic skills; rather they form
alliances with educational institutions, community colleges, or private organizations that
specialize in developing and delivering basic skills training programs.
Organizations are particularly likely to purchase training programs that do not require
organizations specific content and are of a more generic nature.
The advantages of packaged programs are high quality, immediate delivery, ancillary
services (test, videos), the potential to customize the package to the organization,
benefits from others implementation experience, extensive testing, and often a lower
price than internally developed programs.
Purchase decision factors:
One of the most important factors is the cost of each alternative
Cost benefit analysis would be necessary to determine the best option.
In addition to the cost training, other factors should also be considered. For example, the
human resource staff must have the time and expertise to design a training program.
Designing a training program requires expertise in many areas such as training methods
and principles and theories of learning.
Time is also a factor in terms of how soon the organization wants to begin
training. Given the amount of time required to design a new training program, if
there is a need to purchase a training program.
The sooner the organization wants to begin training, the less likely there will be sufficient
time to design a new training program.
Another important factor is the number of employees who need to be trained and
the extent to which future employees will require training.
When an organization decides to purchase a training program, it must choose a
vendor or consultant who will design and or deliver the program.
Request for proposal (RFP):
The process of identifying and hiring a vendor or consultant begins with a request for
proposal (RFP): a document that outlines to potential vendors and consultants an
organization’s training and project needs.
A request for proposal should provide detailed information about the organization’s training
needs and the nature of the project and will often include the following sections: