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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 adms 3450.docx

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Department
Administrative Studies
Course Code
ADMS 3450
Professor
Lois King

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Chapter 4: Blacks
ADMS 3450
Blacks in the Military:
Segregation and discrimination extended to the armed forces, where fellow White military personnel and
non-military personnel alike were openly hostile toward Black servicemen.
Throughout World War II, Blacks experienced sanctioned segregation and discrimination, as did their non
service counterparts. 10 For many years Blacks in the military were restricted to jobs such as janitor, clerk,
cafeteria worker, and laborer, even when they were qualified for higher jobs.
Other overt discrimination took the form of unfounded accusations against Black soldiers for theft,
insubordination, and the rape and harassment of White women, the latter two of which were life-
threatening charges.
On some military bases in the South, Black soldiers had to drink from separate water fountains while White
soldiers and German prisoners of war drank from the fountains for Whites only.
White children. Outside military bases, Blacks in these areas had to ride in the backs of trolleys and busses
and in the "colored" sections of trains; draftees reported to duty after long rides at the back of segregated
busses. Soldiers were denied service in restaurants, theaters, and bars in many cities, and at times faced
open hostility, assault, and even lynching by townspeople.
The Civil Rights Movement:
Blacks had resisted discrimination and segregation for many years, but it was not until the civil rights
movement of the 1950s and 1960s that substantial social and legal changes and the securing of rights
previously denied to Blacks were achieved.
Most of the sit-ins occurred in the South, but stores in the North also faced negative consequences arising
from the discriminatory actions of their counterparts in the South (e.g., Woolworth's, a large discount store
that had locations in both the North and South).
The "Don't buy where you can't work" slogan, used in many effective boycotts, which began as early as
1938 when Black leaders called for boycotts and picketing against organizations that refused to hire Blacks,
sums up the potential for lost business when an organization becomes known for not valuing diversity.
Whites who supported Black causes in the South risked ostracism, harassment, and murder.
RELEVANT LEGISLATION:
Perhaps the most important piece of legislation relevant to the experiences of Blacks in organizations is
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act.
Executive orders in support of affirmative action are also particularly relevant to the employment
experiences of African Americans because of the need for proactive non discrimination measures, as
opposed to the passive provisions of Title VII.
Blacks and women who work for affirmative action employers earn more than those who work for non
affirmative action employers.
POPULATION:
80% of Blacks are under age 50 and 30% are age 18 or younger. This youthfulness reflects the slightly
higher- than-average birthrate and the shorter life expectancy of Blacks, both of which are related to
diversity in organizations.
Blacks mean that a larger proportion of Blacks will enter the workforce in the future. To fully utilize the
assets of this large segment of the population, organizations must create environments that welcome and
provide opportunities for Blacks rather than fostering discrimination, segregation, and exclusion.
Second, although there are many reasons for the shorter life expectancies of Blacks (such as less access to
health care and crime and poverty), researchers have suggested that stress related to discrimination, low
responsibility and autonomy at work, and under utilization of Blacks' skills at work also contribute to
illness and early death.
The organizational pursuit of fairness and equity can reduce discrimination- related stress that Blacks
experience, while also increasing their access to health care and reducing poverty.
In occupations with higher risks of injury and death more than Whites (e.g., convenience store clerk,
construction worker), which contributes somewhat to shorter life expectancies.
When slavery ended, Blacks continued trying to obtain education. For nearly ninety years after the Civil
War, laws in many communities required Blacks to be educated separately from Whites. At times, no
facilities for Blacks were available.
Since the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka, which outlawed
the "separate but `equal'" educational system, there have been marked in- creases in the levels of Black
education.
In 1940, 7.7% of Blacks and 26.1% of Whites had completed at least high school, but by 2008, 83% of
Blacks and 87.1% of Whites had done so.
Whites have more education than Blacks. These differences provide some explanation for the Black/White
earnings and employment gap, but they do not explain it completely.
Participation Rates:
White men have higher participation rates than Black men, and Black women have slightly higher
participation rates than White women.
Black unemployment is higher than that of every other racial/ethnic group at the same level of education.
Black/White comparisons are most striking: Blacks are considerably more likely to be unemployed than
Whites who have one and sometimes two fewer levels of education.
Earnings by Educational Attainment:
At the bachelor's degree level, White men's earnings are highest, while Black men and Black women
remain at the fourth and seventh positions.
While Blacks with a high school education are estimated to earn about a million dollars (1999 figures)
during their work-life, those with a bachelor's degree would earn $1.7 million, and those with an advanced
degree would earn $2.7 million.
Clearly, the levels of education, employment, and earnings of Blacks have in- creased markedly in the past
decades. However, the returns gained from their education and their higher unemployment and
underemployment suggest that Blacks still experience discrimination in organizations.
Recall that access discrimination occurs when people are denied employment opportunities, or "access" to
jobs, based on their race, sex, age, or other factors unrelated to productivity.
Treatment discrimination occurs when people are employed but are treated differently once employed,
receiving fewer job-related rewards, resources, or opportunities than they should receive based on job-
related criteria.
Access Discrimination:
African Americans frequently experience access discrimination based on stereotypes, prejudice, stated
instructions to discriminate, skin tone (with those with darker skins faring worse than those with lighter
skins), or even because their names "sound Black.
Blacks, such as LaKisha and Jamal, were 50% less likely to be called for interviews than were applicants
with names that are common to Whites, such as Emily and Greg. Additional "Black-sounding" names used
in the study were Aisha, Keisha, Tamika, Tanisha, LaToya, Kenya,
Applicants with "White-sounding" names needed to send out ten résumés to receive one callback, while
those with "Black-sounding" names had to send out fifteen résumés--a 50% difference in call-backs.
Having higher-quality résumés (e.g., more credentials) improved Whites' likelihood of being called but did
not increase call-backs for Blacks. In other words, increasing credentials did not matter if the applicant had
a "Black-sounding" name. Having a "White-sounding" name resulted in as many additional call-backs as
did having eight more years of experience on a résumé.
Black names are "increasingly associated with mothers who are young, poor, unmarried, and have low
education."
Larger firms are also more likely to have formal hiring practices and structured interviews, which leave less
room for subjective and possibly discriminatory employment decisions.
In none of the studies using testers, mailed-in résumés, or analyses of other data would applicants have
been aware that access discrimination had occurred. All that applicants would have known is they were not
called for an interview or were not hired.
"New" or "modern" racism:

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Description
Chapter 4 BlacksADMS 3450Blacks in the MilitarySegregation and discrimination extended to the armed forces where fellow White military personnel and nonmilitary personnel alike were openly hostile toward Black servicemenThroughout World War II Blacks experienced sanctioned segregation and discrimination as did their non service counterparts 10 For many years Blacks in the military were restricted to jobs such as janitor clerk cafeteria worker and laborer even when they were qualified for higher jobsOther overt discrimination took the form of unfounded accusations against Black soldiers for theft insubordination and the rape and harassment of White women the latter two of which were lifethreatening chargesOn some military bases in the South Black soldiers had to drink from separate water fountains while White soldiers and German prisoners of war drank from the fountains for Whites onlyWhite children Outside military bases Blacks in these areas had to ride in the backs of trolleys and busses and in the colored sections of trains draftees reported to duty after long rides at the back of segregated busses Soldiers were denied service in restaurants theaters and bars in many cities and at times faced open hostility assault and even lynching by townspeopleThe Civil Rights MovementBlacks had resisted discrimination and segregation for many years but it was not until the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s that substantial social and legal changes and the securing of rights previously denied to Blacks were achievedMost of the sitins occurred in the South but stores in the North also faced negative consequences arising from the discriminatory actions of their counterparts in the South eg Woolworths a large discount store that had locations in both the North and SouthThe Dont buy where you cant work slogan used in many effective boycotts which began as early as 1938 when Black leaders called for boycotts and picketing against organizations that refused to hire Blacks sums up the potential for lost business when an organization becomes known for not valuing diversityWhites who supported Black causes in the South risked ostracism harassment and murderRELEVANT LEGISLATIONPerhaps the most important piece of legislation relevant to the experiences of Blacks in organizations is Title VII of the Civil Rights ActExecutive orders in support of affirmative action are also particularly relevant to the employment experiences of African Americans because of the need for proactive non discrimination measures as opposed to the passive provisions of Title VII
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