•At the bachelor's degree level, White men's earnings are highest, while Black men and Black women
remain at the fourth and seventh positions.
•While Blacks with a high school education are estimated to earn about a million dollars (1999 figures)
during their work-life, those with a bachelor's degree would earn $1.7 million, and those with an advanced
degree would earn $2.7 million.
•Clearly, the levels of education, employment, and earnings of Blacks have in- creased markedly in the past
decades. However, the returns gained from their education and their higher unemployment and
underemployment suggest that Blacks still experience discrimination in organizations.
•Recall that access discrimination occurs when people are denied employment opportunities, or "access" to
jobs, based on their race, sex, age, or other factors unrelated to productivity.
•Treatment discrimination occurs when people are employed but are treated differently once employed,
receiving fewer job-related rewards, resources, or opportunities than they should receive based on job-
•African Americans frequently experience access discrimination based on stereotypes, prejudice, stated
instructions to discriminate, skin tone (with those with darker skins faring worse than those with lighter
skins), or even because their names "sound Black.
•Blacks, such as LaKisha and Jamal, were 50% less likely to be called for interviews than were applicants
with names that are common to Whites, such as Emily and Greg. Additional "Black-sounding" names used
in the study were Aisha, Keisha, Tamika, Tanisha, LaToya, Kenya,
•Applicants with "White-sounding" names needed to send out ten résumés to receive one callback, while
those with "Black-sounding" names had to send out fifteen résumés--a 50% difference in call-backs.
Having higher-quality résumés (e.g., more credentials) improved Whites' likelihood of being called but did
not increase call-backs for Blacks. In other words, increasing credentials did not matter if the applicant had
a "Black-sounding" name. Having a "White-sounding" name resulted in as many additional call-backs as
did having eight more years of experience on a résumé.
•Black names are "increasingly associated with mothers who are young, poor, unmarried, and have low
•Larger firms are also more likely to have formal hiring practices and structured interviews, which leave less
room for subjective and possibly discriminatory employment decisions.
•In none of the studies using testers, mailed-in résumés, or analyses of other data would applicants have
been aware that access discrimination had occurred. All that applicants would have known is they were not
called for an interview or were not hired.
"New" or "modern" racism: