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March 6:8- European Colonialism in the Western Hemisphere .pdf

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ANTH 1120
David Murray

6 March - 12 March March 6/8: European Colonialism in the Western Hemisphere CA pp. 53-59, 242-49 • P.53 - Question 2.2: why are some societies more industrially advanced than others? • P.54 • Prior to the beginnings of the industrial revolution in Europe, the world was significantly different in its distribution of wealth th th • Chinas was richest country in 16 and 17 century as gold and silver taken from the mines of south america by spanish and portuguese was funnelled into china to pay for skills, spices, teas and luxury goods; india was developing a thriving cotton textile industry as Indian calicoes flooded in Europe • England had long enjoyed a thriving trade in textile goods, most notably raw wool and inexpensive wool textiles • Textile production was largely a handicraft industry, and most steps in the production of wool cloth, form cutting and degreasing the wool to dying an spinning the thread, to weaving the cloth, were in the hands of rural families • The finished cloth or wool product might be sold at a local market or fair, or more often was sold to urban based merchants or trader for resale at fairs or shipment overseas • “putting out” system, in which merchants suppled weavers with materials and required them to produce cloth of the desired type • The merchants delivered the supplies and tools and picked up the finished product, generally paying the producers for reach piece produced • This system gave them more control over the production process, it produced a source of cheap labour as it brought women and children into the production process and if demand for their products slacked, the merchant could easily control how much was produced by limited the materials they put out • P.55 • Transform the putting out system into a factory system by bringing the spinners, weavers ad other together in one location to produce the cloth Removing people from the home based family to urban based factories required • new mechanisms of disciplining and control, a fact that explains why early factories were modelled on prisons • The entrepreneur who preciously could halt putting out when demand slackened, now had to keep his factories busy to pay for his investment in buildings and technology and consequently had to create demands for his products The only thing that made manufacturing investments attractive were various kinds • of government subsidies or laws that ensured the flow of cheap labour • Child workers • Government played a major role in creating and defending overseas markets, as well as sources of raw materials such as cotton • Textile industry fuelled the growth of cities and spurred the development of technology • The growth of the textile industry obviously produced great wealth and employed millions of workers • It transformed england into the wealthiest country in the world P.56 • • Trade and manufacture of iron and the agricultural production of food commodities further increased the wealth of the growing british empire • Increase ff. Technology and production created two problems: where was the market for all these textile products to be found and where was the raw materials (cotton) to come from? Competition for selling of textiles for England with Europe and west • • The british in india • India was a major trading country and centuries old trade networks linked india to the rest of Europe, the islamic world and china • The british east india company soon had some 150 posts trading in india for fine skills, cotton sugar, rice, saltpetre, indigo and opium British military take over of india • • Prior to the british military takeover, indian produced cloth that was cheaper and better than english textiles; in fact indian cotton and calicoes were the craze of Europe • India was required to admit english manufactures free of tariffs • England recreated indian textiles and traded and destroyed what had been a thriving indian textile industry • India was still a major producer of raw cotton, although it was not a variety favoured by english or america manufactures instead it was produced for export to china; although it was primarily opium that ld the trade to china • P.57 • The british and western european nations in general, had a problem with trade into china; Chinese products, notably tea where in high demand by there was little produced in England or the rest of Europe for that matter that the Chinese wanted or needed • The British demanded and received additional raiding rights into china, further opening a market, not only for opium but for textiles as well • The british led opium trade from india to china had three results First it reversed the flow of money between china and the rest of the world • th • It is estimated that by the end of the 19 century one out of every 10 Chinese was addicted to opium • The amount of textile exports from england to india and china had increased from 6% of total british exports in 1815 to more than 50% in 1873 • Cotton, slavery and cherokee removal Cotton production in the americas was labour intensive and to be profitable • required slave labour th • Slave trade grew from 15-19 century in response to the economic expansion and demand of european trade including spanish demands for labour in sliver mines, spanish, portuguese, british and french demands for cane cutters and millers for Th.e sugar plantations of brazil and caribbean and demands for workers on the cotton plantations of georgia, alabama, Louisiana, texas and Mississippi • P.58 • The production of cotton with slave labour might be said to have fuelled the industrial revolution in the united states Between 1815 and 1860 raw cotton constituted half the value of domestic exports • from the US • To be competitive, cotton production required cheap labour and slave labour cost half the price of wage labour • Needing about 50-200 slaves per plantation • Cotton forced migration of slaves and native indians to alabama,Mississippi, texas, georgia and Oklahoma • Cherokees were civilized tribes --modernization plan constructing plantations, held Slavs and their own newspaper, school and alphabet • P.59 • Andrew jackson took thousands of additional acres of what had been indian land were taken over or converted to contemn production by white farmers using black slaves • Thus, much of the future wealth of the young country was creaed by white farmers using naive american land and african labour o produce cotton the english and us textile industry • In sum, the growth of the textile industry in england produced great wealth for some people but, int he process, destroyed textile manufacturing in india, led to the colonization of india and chine extended slavery in the united states while it drained africa of productive labour and enhanced the wealth of the united stated while leading to the forced removal of indigenous people from their land • The mass production of textiles in England and elsewhere in Europe also destroyed textile manufacture by artisas in areas of et world where british textiles were sold; since women were often the main textile producers in many societies, we might also speculate that the textile trade my have led to a decline in the status of women in these societies • The new demands for sugar, cocoa, palm oil, tobacco and coffee also led to the conversion of millions of acres of land around the world from subsistence farm to cash crops, further turning self sufficient peasant farmers into dependent wage labourers or unemployed poor The so called nonindustrial nations are due less to their own shortcoming than to • the exploitative actives of others • P.242 - Question 7.2 why do societies construct social hierarchies? • The construction of a social hierarchy is not a necessary feature of all human societies • Groups such as du/‘hoansi or inuit are not totally egalitarian; instead propel go out of their way not to appear better than others • No universal inclination to rank people by one criterion or another, in some societies skin colour makes a difference and in others it doesnt • Some societies men are accorded far greater status than women; in other there is little if any difference in gender rank • Even the use of age asa criterion of rank varies from society to society • As societies become more complex and populous, their propensity for social stratification increases • Integrative and exploitative theories of social hierarchy Social stratification emerged with the origin of private property; others claim it was • created to satisfy the organizational needs of war • Integrative theory of social stratification- based on the assumption that social hierarchy is necessary for the smooth functioning of modern society • Exploitative theory of social stratification - which presumes that hierarchy exists because of one group of individuals seek to take advantage of another group for economic purposes • Proponents of the integrative theory of social stratification assume that as societies for and there are more people to feed, house and clothe, more labour efficient or technologically sophisticated means are required to produce enough food another necessities and to erect the necessary infrastructure • The results in a division of labour that requires greater coordinative of tasks, more efficient management and more complex leadership systems, all of which inevitably lead to some form of social stratification • As societies become more complex, they need to organize systems of defence against other groups who may attack them, and the development of a military organization requires the centralization of power which again leads to the emergence of an elite group The integrative theory of social stratification is based on the assumption that • society’s need for greater integration, along with the need to assert greater controls on individual behaviour, necessitates some form of centralized authority that offers its citizen security, protection, means of settling disputes, defence against other groups and sustenance • P.243 All these are offered in exchange for the peoples acceptance of and loyalty to state • authorities and officials • In the integrative theory, society is likened tao living organism whos parts must be regulated by a controlling device if they are to function efficiently for the survival of the whole • Complex societies, like complex living organisms, exhibit greater differentiation as they evolve • With greater differentiation there follows a greater degree of interrelation among parts, which in turn requires greater control by government, magnet and the military • Without control, society, like a living organism would cease to exist • NA military to illustrate necessity for stratification Industry as another illustration of the need for hierarchy • • The reason ju/‘hoansi require no hierarchy, is because each person or family is self sufficient and there is no need for the coordination or control of activities • Societies become more complex and the division of labour increases, greater control is necessary • Those who assume the responsibility of control are given greater rewards is simply a way of assuring the survival of the society as a whole • Others agree that in complex societies it is necessary for integration to occur, but they disagree that social hierarchy is required for integration • Proponents of the exploitative theory of social stratification claim that stratification arises when one group seeks to exploit the resources or labour of others • Karl marx and the origin of class • Theories of social stratification of karl marx and friedr
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