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Nov 21- How do societies make peace? .pdf

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ANTH 1120
David Murray

21 November27 November Nov 2123 How do societies make peace Readings 1 CA pp281291 281 Question 82 How Do Societies Create a Bias Against Violent ConflictSince war is so widespread in human societies the task of the social scientists is not so much to explain war as to express peace Peaceful society not involved in internal collective violence and in which there is little interpersonal violence A peaceful society has no special roles for warriors and places a positive on non aggressive behaviour and the peaceful resolution of conflict Characteristics of Peaceful Societies Conflict over material resources is avoided in peaceful societies by a strong emphasis on sharing and cooperation 282Juhoansi share arrows so that if someone else kills using their arrow then they will be the winner spread reasonability for meat sharing and the glory and perhaps the hostility that accompanies meath distributionSemai of west malaysia believe that to refuse a request and deny a person a need intensifies the danger to both the individual and the group for that reason the group is obligated to help Pehumana state of being in which a person is unsatisfied in regard to some need or want Semai values stress affiliation mutual aid and the belief that violence is not a viable option for settling disputes Another way people in peaceful societies create a bias against violence is by condemning those who boast or make claims that can interpreted as a challenge to others Juhoansi try to minimize accomplishments Killing for the sake of the community doesnt give you any importance or prioritypeople in peaceful societies also avoid telling others what to do and carefully control their emotions in order to maintain good will Inuit believe thoughts and resentment can result in the death or illness of someoneso try to keep peace and lack of resentmentSo great is their fear of causing conflict that they make requests indirectly to avoid being refused or to avoid embarrassing someone by making them refuse a request So great is the crime of losing ones temper that someone who does so my be ostracized from the group Villagers in the xingu basin of the amazon maintain harmony by purposely sanctioning village monopolies in the production of certain goodsthat way each village has something that other villages need resulting in maintaing good relations to alienate anther village might deprive ones own village members of a desire good 283Trade is positively valued in itself Each village contains people with skills able to maintain all the goods but trade is needed so not to anger the other villages and keep the peace Xinguanos place a strong negative value on aggression and things that symbolize aggression Killing and blood is considered defilingXinguanoshold strong negative stereotypes of aggressive groupsconsider nonxingu indians to be wild indians who are violent beat their children rape their women and shoot arrows at white mens planes When xingu villages have been object of aggression by othersthey have to defend themselves but successful warriors take no trophies are are given no special honour and take special medicine to cleanse themselves of the defilement of the blood of their victims The build people of the Philippines are also known for their non violence Buid believe that the outside world is filled with threatening spirits that prey upon people and that any intragroup hostility might weaken the group and expose them to these spiritsPeaceful societies also minimize violence and conflict through ceremony Juhoansi believe that everyone has what they term their medicine or power Juhoansi have num a substance they say lies in the pit of the stomach and has the capacity to keep people healthy and cure those who are sick and can be transferred from someone who is acting as a healer to other through the medium of the trance dance their most common ceremonyBy dancing the num is heated up and is led to the brain which puts dancer in a trance Dancer heals people by laying their hands on them an enabling them to ward off sickness and death 384Dance provides ability to heal see spirits xray vision and change into animal Dance can heal social conflict as well as individual maladies
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