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Chapter 4

Biology 1000 Chapter 4.docx

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York University
BIOL 1000
Angelo Belcastro

Chapter 4 Enzymes speed up reactions Phosphatases: catalyze the removal of a phosphate group Work: Defined as the ability to move objects in the opposite directions, friction, gravity, pressure, push chemical reaction to completion Energy: ability to do work Different States Forms of Energy Energy can be transferred from one form to another Battery: chemical  electrical  light Kinetic energy: energy possessed by object that is in motion Potential Energy: Stored energy due to objects location or chemical structure (glucose) Laws of Thermodynamics Study of energy transfer System: object being studied Surroundings: everything outside of the system Universe: total of the system and surroundings Isolated system: Does not exchange energy with its surroundings Closed system: Exchange energy with surroundings, BUT NOT MATTER Earth and sun First Law Of Thermodynamics: Energy can only be transferred not created or destroyed Principle of Conversion of Energy Ex. Niagara falls: water at the tip holds potential energy, which turns into kinetic energy as the water falls to the bottom, which is then converted into heat, sound and mechanical energy Second Law: Energy Transformation increases disorder Each time energy is transferred, a portion is lost and unavailable to do work Usually losr to surroundings as heat Glucose: only 40% is actually used for metabolism Entropy: Increase randomness in the universe Total disorder of a system and its surroundings always increase Naturally systems move towards entropy Energy transfers are not 100% efficient Life Arranged in NonRandom Order Life has the ability to make complex out of much simplier ones Iife takes energy to maintain low entropy THERMODYNAMICALLY open systems in living cells exchange energy and matter with surroundings Energy is used for: 1) maintenance 2) energy 3) New cell growth 4) repairs Entropy is SUPPOSE to INCREASE Spontaneous Reactions Spontaneous Reactions: Chemical and physical reaction that will occur without the input of energy No rate is known 2 Factors Determine 1) Change in energy content of system 2) Change in entropy Reaction is Spontaneous IF: 1) Potential energy of products < potential energy of reactants a. Potential energy in a system is called enthalpy (H) b. ENDOTHERMIC RXN: products H > reactants H c. EXOTHERMIC RXN: Products H < reactants H d. Ice melting is spontaneous 2) Products less Ordered than reactants Entropy (S) of products > S of Reactants As ice melts, increase in entropy Ice has lower entropy than at liquid state Change in Free Energy Portions of systems energy available to do work cal
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