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Chapter 15

BIOL 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Helicase, Sticky And Blunt Ends, Ecori

Course Code
BIOL 1000
Nicole Nivillac

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Biotechnology: Any technique applied to biological systems or living organisms to make or modify
products or processes for a specific purpose.
DNA Technology: Techniques used to isolate, purify, analyze, manipulate DNA to serve a specific
Genetic Engineering: Altering genes of genomes for practical purposes.
EXAMPLE: E. COLI - E. coli and Molecular Biology = Biotechnology!
Beneficial (in intestines) - rod shaped multi flagellum organism
Can isolate these on a median and grow these bacteria
DNA cloning: Creating multiple identical copies of a piece of DNA (gene). - at a MOLECUALAR LEVEL
Recombinant DNA: Joining DNA from two different sources together.
Common methodology for cloning DNA: Put DNA in bacteria and then grow lots of bacteria.
Creating recombinant DNA requires two main components:
Recall: plasmid contains nonessential genes

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• Put gene of interest into a plasmid (vector) <---another term for plasmid
• Put plasmid into a bacterium (transformation)
• In the bacterium, the gene can be transcribed/ translated and replicated when the bacterium divides
Bacterial plasmids
Plasmids used are actually purified from bacteria but modified slightly in a lab
Bacterial Plasmid DNA
Some parts of the plasmid are natural found some are added in a lab
Promoter: starting point of transcription
ORI: starting point for replication
Marker: [modification] also called selectable marker, allows you to identify which DNA has been
MCS: [modification] where gene of interest inserted into plasmid

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Preparing the Gene of interest
Gene you would like to study within a particular genome
Once isolated, the gene of interest must be amplified.
You have 2 copies of a gene in a cell - not enough to work with, in order to access the gene you must
break the cell and purify the gene out of the cell, since only 2 copies you have to AMPLIFY the gene and
MAKE MORE COPIES of the gene
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