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Chapter 12

Biology 1000 Chapter 12 York University.docx

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York University
BIOL 1000
Angelo Belcastro

Biology Chapter 12: DNA Replication Watson and Crick  DNA; 5 carbon deoxyribose, phosphate group, nitrogenous base  ADENINE & GUANINE : Purines  THYMINE & CYTOSINE: Pyrimidines  Deoxyribose sugars and phosphate group make up the backbone of DNA held together by phosphodiester bond  5’ end has phosphate group  3’ end hydroxyl group DNA Replication Meselson & Stahl: Semiconservative  Parent DNA was tagged with nonradioactive, heavy nitrogen  Grew specimen in heavy nitrogen first  Which was incorporated into the nitrogenous bases of the resulting DNA  Transferred specimen to light nitrogen, new DNA made after had light nitrogen  Took sample of cells while they were in light nitrogen  Formed density gradient, mixed at the bottom, light at the top DNA Polymerases  Complementary DNA strand assembled by DNA polymerase enzyme  Template strand runs 3’-5’, enzyme synthesizes 5’-3’  Enzyme reads from 3’-5’  DNA polymerase is run by the hydrolysis of a phosphate group from deoxyribose triphosphates, creating phosphodiester bonds  Can only add nucleotides to 3’ end, with hydroxyl group  Sliding DNA Clamp: binds to the rear of the DNA polymerase, encircling DNA strand. o Clamps purpose if to secure the polymerase to the template DNA strand  Key events o DNA strands unwind o DNA polymerase can only add to existing chain o DNA synthesizes 5’-3’ Helicases and Other Proteins in DNA Replication  Origin of Replication: where the DNA unwinds  Special proteins bind the area, which promotes DNA Helicase to bind and begin unwinding creating replication fork  Single stranded binding proteins: attach to strands of DNA preventing reannealing  Twisting of DNA caused my unwinding is
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