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Chapter 13

Biology 1000 Chapter 13 York University.docx

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York University
BIOL 1000
Angelo Belcastro

Biology Chapter 13 & 14: Gene Structure/Expression The Connection Between DNA RNA and Protein  Alkaptonuria o Patients urine turns black when exposed to oxygen o Determined it is an inherited trait  Bread Mold o Exposed some to xrays, which caused mutations o Wild type could make its own nutrient from raw products, but mutant strain wasn’t able to grow unless the nutrient was added into the tube  Proteins are made up of subunits called polypeptides Gene to Polypeptide Involves Transcription and Translation  Transcription: Mechanism where the information in DNA is made into complementary RNA copy o Called transcription because info in one nucleic acid type is transferred to another type o RNA polymerase creates an RNA sequence that is complementary to DNA sq’n of given gene o The complementary RNA strand made by RNA polymerase is called mRNA  Translation: is the use of the info encoded in RNA to assemble appropriate amino acids into polypeptides o Called translation because info in nucleotides is converted into a different kind of molecule – aa o mRNA combines with a ribosome, as the ribosome moves along mRNA aa are joined to form polypeptide  In prokaryotes, genes can be transcribed simultaneously, whereas eukaryotes process mRNA in the nucleus first Transcription DNA Directed RNA Synthesis  Only gene is transcribed, unlike DNA replication where the whole strand is  RNA molecules resulting in transcription are single stranded  Where A appears in the DNA strand, RNA polymerase complements it with U in the mRNA  Three Steps  Gene has two main parts, Promoter, o Initiation  Molecular machinery carries out transcription assembles at the promoter region and begins synthesizing RN o Elongation  RNA polymerase moves along gene extending RNA chain o Termination  Transcription ends  In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase cant bind directly to the DNA, so transcription factors first bind to the promoter, but in bacteria RNA polymerase binds directly to promoter  Prokaryotes have two types of termination, they act AFTER they
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