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Chapter 4

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BIOL 1000
Nicole Nivillac

Chapter 4 Intro Energy = capacity to do work Kinetic energy- energy possessed by an object in motion Potential energy= stored energy 1 law of thermodynamics- energy can’t be created or destroyed 2 law of thermodynamics-whenever energy is transferred, some of the energy will be lost and unavailable to do work. Entropy- the level of disorder. Amount of energy that is unable to do work. - Needs energy to keep low entropy Reactions tend to be spontaneous if the products have less potential energy than the reactants Enthalpy- potential energy in a system Reactions tend to be spontaneous when the products are less ordered than the reactants - The products have higher entropy than the reactants Free energy(G)- the portion of a systems energy that is available to do work ΔG =ΔH-TΔS ΔH is the change in enthalpy and ΔS is the change in entropy of the system T is the temp in kelvin ΔG must be negative in order for spontaneous reaction to occur, but when ΔG is positive the reaction occurs in reverse Chemical equilibrium- state in which the reaction does not stop but rather a state in which the rate of forward reaction equals the rate of backward reaction Exergonic reaction- reaction that releases free energy(-ΔG) Endergonic reaction- reaction where products have more free energy than reacatants(+ΔG) 4.3 The Energy Currency of the Cell: ATP ATP- Contains large amounts of free energy, possess high energy phosphate bonds. Contains 5 carbon sugar, ribose, linked to adenine. ATP hydrolysis – negative charges strongly repel each other, adding water makes the phosphate bonds break releasing great amounts of energy creating ADP and inorganic phosphate Energy coupling- ATP is brought in close contact by enzymes with a react
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