Textbook Notes (369,140)
Canada (162,411)
York University (12,903)
Biology (1,015)
BIOL 1000 (389)
Chapter 10

BIOL 1000 Chapter 10 - Mendel, Genes, and Inheritance.docx

3 Pages
197 Views

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1000
Professor
Jennifer Steeves

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Description
Chapter 10 – Mendel, Genes, & Inheritance 10.1 – The Beginnings of Genetics: Mendel’s Garden Peas • Science used to believe in the Blending Theory of Inheritance; disproved by Mendel • Mendel used a very suitable experimental organism; the true-breeding garden pea  Used cross-pollination and prevented self-fertilization • Phenotype – The outward appearance of an organism • Genotype – The genetic constitution of an organism • Heterozygote – An individual with two different alleles of a gene; heterozygous for the trait • Homozygous – An individual with two of the same allele for gene; homozygous for the trait • P Generation – The plants used in the initial cross are called the Parental Generation • F1Generation – The first generation of offspring from the initial cross • F2Generation – The second generation of offspring from a genetic cross • Product Rule – When two events are independent; their individual probabilities are multiplied • Sum Rule – Several Diff. events all give the same outcome; individual probabilities are added up • Mendel showed that traits are passed from parents to offspring as hereditary factors  Now called genes and alleles  They are passed in predictable ratios and combinations Monohybrid Cross • Results with crosses involving single characters could be explained if 3 hypotheses were true: 1. The genes that govern inheritance of genetic characters occur in pairs in individuals  An organism inherits one half of the pair from each parent 2. If different alleles of a gene are present in a pair within an individual, one allele is dominant over the other (recessive)  Dominant – The allele that is expressed when more than one is present 3. Principle of Segregation – Pairs of alleles that control a character segregate as gametes are formed; half the gametes carry one allele and the other half carry the other allele • Hypothesis confirmed by a testcross btwn a F he1erozygote and a homozygous recessive parent  Still used to determine whether an individual is homozygous/heterozygous for a dominant allele Dihybrid Cross • Results of crosses with individuals showing differences in 2 characters need another hypothesis: 4. Principle of Independent Assortment – The alleles of the genes that govern 2 characters segregate independently during formation of g
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit