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Chapter 10

BIOL 1000 Chapter 10 - Mendel, Genes, and Inheritance.docx

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BIOL 1000
Jennifer Steeves

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Chapter 10 – Mendel, Genes, & Inheritance 10.1 – The Beginnings of Genetics: Mendel’s Garden Peas • Science used to believe in the Blending Theory of Inheritance; disproved by Mendel • Mendel used a very suitable experimental organism; the true-breeding garden pea  Used cross-pollination and prevented self-fertilization • Phenotype – The outward appearance of an organism • Genotype – The genetic constitution of an organism • Heterozygote – An individual with two different alleles of a gene; heterozygous for the trait • Homozygous – An individual with two of the same allele for gene; homozygous for the trait • P Generation – The plants used in the initial cross are called the Parental Generation • F1Generation – The first generation of offspring from the initial cross • F2Generation – The second generation of offspring from a genetic cross • Product Rule – When two events are independent; their individual probabilities are multiplied • Sum Rule – Several Diff. events all give the same outcome; individual probabilities are added up • Mendel showed that traits are passed from parents to offspring as hereditary factors  Now called genes and alleles  They are passed in predictable ratios and combinations Monohybrid Cross • Results with crosses involving single characters could be explained if 3 hypotheses were true: 1. The genes that govern inheritance of genetic characters occur in pairs in individuals  An organism inherits one half of the pair from each parent 2. If different alleles of a gene are present in a pair within an individual, one allele is dominant over the other (recessive)  Dominant – The allele that is expressed when more than one is present 3. Principle of Segregation – Pairs of alleles that control a character segregate as gametes are formed; half the gametes carry one allele and the other half carry the other allele • Hypothesis confirmed by a testcross btwn a F he1erozygote and a homozygous recessive parent  Still used to determine whether an individual is homozygous/heterozygous for a dominant allele Dihybrid Cross • Results of crosses with individuals showing differences in 2 characters need another hypothesis: 4. Principle of Independent Assortment – The alleles of the genes that govern 2 characters segregate independently during formation of g
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