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Chapter 6

BIOL 1001 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Shocked Quartz, Flowering Plant, Cichlid


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
Alexander Mills
Chapter
6

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Pages: 122-126, 130-133 Adaptive Radiations and Mass Extinctions Lecture 14
Page 122-126
1. Adaptive Radiations
a. Adaptive radiation single lineage produces numerous descendent species
that live in a wide diversity of habitats and use a wide array of resources
b. 3 hallmarks of adaptive radiation with respect to Descendent species:
i. are part of 1 monophyletic group
ii. are speciated rapidly
iii. are diversified ecologically
1. in terms of resources used and habitats occupied
c. niche range of resources a species can use and conditions it can tolerate
a. Why Do Adaptive Radiations Occur?
i. Because of new resources and new ways to exploit resources
ii. ECOLOGICAL OPPORTUNITY
1. Availability of new types of resources leads to adaptive radiations
2. No other plants were flowering on Hawaiian Islands except for
Silverswords (no competition)
a. Silverswords grew all over the island and specialized based on
the resources available at the certain part of the island =
adaptive radiation
3. Different species of Anolis lizards vary based on their body sizes and
shapes
a. Requirements based their habitat
4. Mini-radiation a colonizing group encountered no competitors and
diversified in a way that led to efficient use of the available resources
(niches) by a group of descendent species
iii. MORPHOLOGICAL INNOVATION
1. Evolution of morphological traits allowing descendants to live in
new areas, exploit new sources of food, or move in new ways led to
diversification
2. Examples:
a. Evolution of wings, 3 legs, complex mouth parts, strong
external skeleton helps insects move and feed efficiently
b. Flowers triggered diversification of angiosperms
c. Cichlid developed unique jaws for easier food processing
d. Dinosaurs developed wings
3. All of the examples support rapid speciation and ecological divergence
b. Canadian Issues 1 iBOL: The International Barcode of Life Project
i. 648-base pair can be used to identify a species
1. Identified in mtDNA (which are more abundant than DNA and
accumulate mutations faster than nuclear DNA does)
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