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Chapter Natural Selection

BIOL 1001 Chapter Notes - Chapter Natural Selection: Cestoda, Allele Frequency, Fallacy


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
Alexander Mills
Chapter
Natural Selection

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Lecture 9 Misconceptions about Natural Selection Pages (55-56)
1) Selection acts on individuals however evolutionary changes occurs in populations
individuals do not chage ol the populatio hages. A idiidual’s allele
frequencies cannot change over timeit has the alleles it was born with all its life
2) Contrast with Lamarckian inheritance:
Darwin realized that individuals do not change when they are selected. Instead, they
simply produce more offspring. Therefore there alleles become more frequent in the
populatio. Natural seletio just sorts eistig ariats it does’t hage the.
3) Acclimation is not adaptation:
Biologists use the term acclimation to describe changes in a individuals phenotype that
occur in response to changes in environmental conditions. Phenotypic changes due to
acclimation are not passed on to offspring no alleles have changed in composition.
ACCLIMATION DOES NOT CAUSE EVOLUTION
4) Evolution is not goal directed
For example: mutations are created randomly due to an error during DNA synthesis
sometimes it happens to be advantageous to the environment however it is random and
not goal directed. Adaptations do not occur because an organism needs or wants them.
5) Evolution is not progressive
It is often tempting to think that evolution by natural selection is progressive
orgais hae gotte etter oer tie hoeer there is othig predeteried
6) There is no such thing as higher or lower organism
Under evolution, there is no such thing as a higher or lower organism. A human is no
higher than a tape worm each is well adapted to its environment
4 Fallacies:
Falla A: “oeoe i harge. There is o suh thig as other ature or soeoe i
charge of what happens In the environment. - Anthropomorphism thinking
NS does not seek anything and does not create peaceful harmony
Fallacy B: The needs of an organism are not generated by evolutionary solutions, in
other words natural selection is not goal directed and does not occur because an
organism wants or needs a certain trait. Teleogical thinking
There is a term known as backward causation that describes that the current traits of
organisms are solution of past goals. We say that those individuals that were less
adapted did not survive to produce offspring and pass their genes.
Fallacy C: Natural selection drives to complexity and perfection progressive thinking
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