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BIOL 1001 (162)
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Chapter

Phylogenies.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
Tamara Kelly

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Phylogenies Phylogeny: evolutionary history of a group of organisms • Displayed in a phylogenetic tree - ancestor-descendant relationship • Branch: population through time • Node: ancestral species splits into two or more descendants • Tip: endpoint of branch represents a group that's living or extinct (species or larger taxon) • Phenetic approach: method for constructing phylogenetic tree by computing a statistic that summarizes the overall similarity among populations based on available data o Ex. One way to see this is in DNA, the differences in DNA = farther away in branches than those with similar DNA combos • Cladisitic approach: a method for construction a phylogenetic tree that is based on identifying the unique traits of each monophyletic group o Synapomorphies - a trait that certain groups of organisms have that exists in no others o this allows biologists to recognize monophyletic groups (clades/lineages - ancestor + descendants) • Ancestral trait: characteristic that existed in its ancestor • Derived trait: one that is modified form of the ancestral trait found in descendant • Relative to each other Ex. Comparing mammals and amn
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