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Chapter 19

chapter 19

Course Code
BIOL 1001
Tamara Kelly

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Chapter 19 Notes
19.2: Systematic Biology-An Overview
-Systematic biology, classification and taxonomy help us organize and understand
information about the biological world
-The science of systematics- the study of the diversity of life and its evolutionary
relationships- has two major goals:
One is to reconstruct the phylogeny or evolutionary history of a group of
organisms, presented as phylogenetic trees. These are formal hypotheses
identifying likely evolutionary relationships among species.
The second goal is taxonomy, the identification and naming of species and their
placement in a classification. A classification is an arrangement of organisms into
hierarchical groups that reflect their relatedness. Classifications should mirror
phylogenetic history and the adaptive radiation (evolutionary history) of the
group of organisms in question.
19.3: The Linnaean System of Classification
-Linnaeus described and named thousands of species on the basis of their similarities
and differences.
-He developed a taxonomic hierarchy for arranging organisms into ever more
inclusive categories.
A family is a group of genera that closely resemble one another
Similar families are grouped into orders
Similar orders are grouped into classes
Similar classes are grouped into phyla
Similar phyla are grouped into kingdoms
All life on Earth is classified into three domains
-The organisms included within any category of the taxonomic hierarchy
compromise a taxon
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