Textbook Notes (362,991)
Canada (158,132)
York University (12,352)
Biology (939)
BIOL 1001 (162)
Tamara Kelly (110)

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York University
BIOL 1001
Tamara Kelly

Chapter 3 Biodiversity and Biosphere31 Biodiversitybiosphereall regions of the earths crust waters and atmosphere that sustain lifereflected in the biodiversity of the earthEcosystem group of communities interacting with their common physical environments Community pop Of all species that occupy one are Population same species in one area Multicellular organismunit consisting of more than one cell Cell smallest unit able to live and reproduceindependently or as part of mutilcellular organismTaxonomic organizationOrganized into groups based on specific characteristics3 main domainso Bacteria nucleoid no membraneo Archearesemble bacteria visulally however are closer to eukaryas molecular composition o EukaryanucleusReading trees lines intersectcommon ancestor common features Autotrophs synthesize their own carbon moleculesOxides containing carbon are inorganic moleculesChemotrophsobtain E by oxidizing inorganic or organic substancesPhototrophs get E from light32 Selection Selection occurs when forcephenomenon affects the survivallife of a specific organism Large population exposed to severe factor where only resilient individuals will reproduce Outcome of selection ex Disease breaks out at hospitalcertainflowers dont make it through winter33 c Land Organisms conquer a new frontierMany terrestrial organisms still lived in a film of water therefore the migration onto land presented many problems o Conservation of water o Matters of support o Reproduction o Disposal of wastesDifferences between water and air include density and viscosity which affect rates of diffusion and availability of oxygenAquatic animals extract dissolved water therefore when water is at higher temperatures there is less O 2dissolved in the water therefore it takes more energy for them to get the oxygen they need Terrestrial animals o More complex body designsSpecialized sexual organsStems w mechanisms for fluid transportRoots for anchoringLeaves for photosynthesis w stomata for O and CO 2 2 Skeletons and anchoring musclesOrgans for gas exchangeSystems for circulating materials within the bodyNon toxic excretory products urea and uric acid vs harmful ammonia 34 The biosphereAbiotic factors contribute to a regions climate34 a Solar Radiation Energy from the Sunenvironmental diversity results from o latitudinal variation in incoming solar radiation o earths rotation on its axis o earths orbit around the sun intensity of solar radiation from sun varies from the equator to the poles because of the spherical shape of the eartho more concentrated at the equator as it strikes the earth at a direct point rather than an an oblique angle as it does at the poles 34 b Seasonality Weather through the yearthe earth is on a fixed tilt with an angle of 235 o this tilt produces seasonal changesseasonal variation in temperature and day length increases steadily towards the poles 35 Biotic Factorsdiversity of living organisms is affected byo physical environment
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