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Chapter 4

BIOL1500Chapter FoChapter Fourur CHAPTER FOUR TEXTBOOK NOTES.docx

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York University
BIOL 1500

BIOL 1500 CHAPTER FOUR ENERGY May2010DEFINITIONSCHAPTER NOTES 41Most vehicles run on fossil fuelsAnimal fats and oils in plants share features with gasoline o Fats and oils like gas contain chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms bound together Breaking these bonds releases large amounts of energy and water and CO and if 2captured efficiently it too can be used to push pistons and turn car wheels 42Energy is the capacity to do work Work is anything that involves moving matter against an opposing force o Kinetic energy is the energy of moving objectslegs pushing bike pedalsflapping of birds wingsheatlots of molecules moving rapidlylightcomes from movement of highenergy particles o Potential energy stored energy capacity to do work that results from an objects location or positionWater behind a dam has potential energy If the hole in the dam is opened it can power a turbine for example Concentration gradient if molecules in a high concentration gradient move toward lower concentration the potential energy of the gradient is converted to the kinetic energy of a molecular movementChemical energy the storage of energy in chemical bonds is a type of potential energyfood is a form of chemical energy 43less than 1 of energy from the sun is captured and transformed into usable chemical energy through photosynthesis30 is absorbed by land oceans and atmosphere70 transformed into heat o Heat is not easily harnessed to do work and is a much less useful form of energy Thermodynamics study of transforming energy from one type to another
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