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Learning Objective 1.doc


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1500
Professor
Tanya Da Sylva

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Learning Objective 1
What is Science and Biology?
oApply the scientific method to everyday situations. Design critical
experiments to test hypotheses and discuss the importance of well-
designed and controlled experiments.
oDistinguish between quantitative and qualitative data.
Quantitative data is a measurable observation, usually to do
with numbers
Qualitative data is data that can be observed that can be
described but not measured
oDistinguish between a scientific theory and a hypothesis.
Hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a set of
observations
A good hypothesis leads to predictions that
scientists can test by recording additional
observations or by experiments
Theory is much broader in scope that a hypothesis.
A theory is general enough to generate many
hypothesis
A theory is supported by evidence
Theories describe a great diversity of observations
that are supported by a vast body of evidence
oDescribe seven properties common to all life.
1) Order: a highly ordered structure that typified life.
Living cells are the basis of this complex organization.
2) Reproduction: Organisms reproduce their own kind
3) Growth and development: Inherited information in the
form of DNA controls the pattern of growth and
development of all organisms.
4) Energy processing: When a predator eats its prey, the
predator will use the chemical energy in its prey to power
its own activities and chemical reactions.
5) Response to the environment: All organisms respond
to environmental stimuli.
6) Regulation: many types of mechanisms regulate an
organism’s internal environment, keeping it within limits
that sustain life.
7) Evolutionary adaptations: Adaptations evolve over
many generations, as individual traits with traits best suited

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for their environment have greater reproductive success and
pass on their traits to their offspring.
oDescribe the levels of biological organization from molecules to
the biosphere, noting the interrelationships between levels.
1) Biosphere: All of the environments on earth that support
life. Includes: Regions of land, bodies of water and the
lower atmosphere.
2) Ecosystem: All the organisms living in a particular area,
as well as the physical component with which the
organisms interact with (such as air, soil, water, and
sunlight)
3) Community: The entire array of organisms. So all the
species inhabiting in a certain area.
4) Population: All the individuals of a particular species,
living in an area.
5) Organism: an individual living thing.
6) Organ system: Several organs that co-operate in a
specific function. Such as circulatory system or nervous
system.
7) Organ: An organ is made up of several different tissues,
Example: our brain.
8) Tissue: is made up of a group of similar cells that
perform a specific function. Ex: Nervous system
9) Cell: a fundamental unit of life. Ex: nerve cell
10) Organelle: a membrane-enclosed structure that
performs a specific function in a cell. Ex: Nucleus
11) Molecule: is a cluster of small chemical units called
atoms held together by chemical bonds. Ex: DNA
oDiscuss how hierarchical organization and evolution tie together
all major themes in biology.
At each new property, there are novel properties that arise,
properties that were not present at the preceding level.
Emergent properties is an important theme in biology
because everything is always developing and coming
together.
oExplain why cells are a special level in biological organization.
Cell are the fundamental unit of life

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Chemistry and Macromolecules
oDescribe the importance of chemical elements to living organisms and
relate major principles of chemistry to the study of biology
oAll types of matter (anything that occupies space) are composed of
elements. Elements are substances that cannot be broken down to
other substances by ordinary chemical means.
oAbout 25 elements are essential to life, the 4 most common are
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. These 4 elements are the
main ingredients for biological molecules such as proteins, sugars,
and fats. (These 4 elements make up 96% of human weight)
oCalcium and phosphorous are responsible for bone formation.
oPotassium, sodium, calcium, and chlorine are essential for nerve
signalling (4% of human body weight)
oTrace elements are needed for all forms of life
Iron is vital for energy processing and for transporting
oxygen in your blood.
Iodine is essential for hormone produced by thyroid gland
Iodine deficiency = goitre or retardation
Fluoride reduces tooth decay
oDescribe the structure of an atom and be able to sketch a representative
structure when given key information about an element.
oAn atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains properties of an
element.
oThe structure of an atom consists of 3 kinds of particles
Proton: a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical
charge (+)
Electron: a subatomic particle with a single negative
electrical charge (-)
Neutron: a subatomic particle with a neutral charge (no
charge)
Electrons move around the nucleus
The attraction between the electrons and the protons
hold the electrons near the nucleus
oAtomic number: all atoms of a particular element have a unique
number of protons (# of protons= # of electrons, making net
electrical charge=0)
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