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Chapter 1-2

BIOL 1500 Chapter 1-2: BIOL 1500 Chapter 1-: Chapters 1 & 2


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1500
Professor
Tanya Da Sylva
Chapter
1-2

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September 13th, 2018
Biology: Chapter 1 & 2
The Characteristics of Life
1. Organization
2. Energy Use
3. Maintain an internal consistency (Homeostasis)
4. Reproduction, growth, development
5. Evolution Change in genetic makeup over multiple generations
Adaptation inherited characteristics that enable an organism to survive and reproduce
successfully
Natural Selection comes from adaptation
What is Science?
Evidenced based and data driven
o Scientific method (experimental); things that need to be followed:
Hypothesis
o Must be falsifiable (set of observations can prove theory wrong)
Scientific Method Using evidence to answer questions and test ideas
1. Make observations
2. Ask a question
3. Consult prior knowledge
4. Formulate a hypothesis
5. Ake predictions
6. Collect and interpret data
7. Consult prior knowledge
8. Draw conclusions
9. Peer review (or make to make observations)
10. Publish
Types of Science
Discovery Science/Natural Observations
Controlled Experiments
Making observations
Can’t control
Control experiments
Manipulation make sure to eliminate
“personal” life = make the researcher
interpret the information correctly
Manipulate one thing at a time
Variables:
1) Independent Variable (manipulation)
2) Dependent Variable (measured)
3) Standardized Variable (holds constant)
Sample Size

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Control basis for comparison of
treatment group(s) (placebo resembles
treatment given to experimental group;
has the inactive properties but does not
consist of the active properties
Hypothesis vs Theory
Hypothesis
Theory (Opinion/Hunch)
Fact
Makes predictions that
will be tested
Tentative (not certain
or fixed) explanation
for observations
Derives from theory
falsifiable
Broader in scope;
explanation of natural
phenomenon
Previously tested
(doesn’t necessarily
mean it is true)
Sometimes cannot test
right away
Lots of data to be
supported (again
doesn’t mean it is true)
Falsifiable
Repeated observations
that everyone can
agree on
Collection of facts
doesn’t explain
anything (that’s where
theories provide these
explanations)
Scientific Inquiry had Limitations
Problem #1: Evidence may lead to multiple interpretations; could fail to provide definitive answers
Problem #2: Researches may misinterpret observations or experimental results
Problem #3: Scientific community may be slow to accept new evidence that suggest unexpected
conclusions
Technology
The practical application of scientific knowledge
Science + Technology (related)
What Science Cannot Test:
1. Things that aren’t a natural phenomenon
2. Thing that aren’t testable
Biology...
Studied at different timescales and multiple physical scales
Has various categories
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Biology’s enormous scope includes the great diversity of great diversity of organisms over the
long history of life on Earth
Evolution accounts for life’s duel nature of:
o Kinship
o Diversity
“Life shows unity and diversity”
o Ex. All life composed of cells
o Ex. Different structures and functions (evolution)
Emergent Properties
A new function from the interaction of components
Ex. Flour, sugar, chocolate, butter = Brownies
Chemistry
Only electrons are involved in chemical reactions
Atoms are most stable when their valence shells are full
Types of Particles in an Atom
Particle
Charge
Mass
Location
Electron
(-)
Around 0
Surrounding Nucleus
Neutron
None
1
Nucleus
Proton
(+)
1
Nucleus
Matter Glossary
Element
A pure substance that cannot be broken down by
chemical means into other substances; each
element has a characteristic atomic number
Atom
The smallest unit of an element that retains the
characteristics of that element
Atomic number
# of Protons
Mass Number
Protons + Neutrons
Isotope
Any of the different forms of the same element;
each isotope is characterized by a different
number of neutrons
Atomic Weight
The Average mass of all atoms of an element
Ion
An atom that has gained or lost an electron
Mass Number Atomic Number = # of Neutrons
Chemical Bonds
Type
Chemical Basis
Strength
Example
Covalent Bond
Two atoms share pairs of
electrons
Strong
Sodium chloride (NaCl)
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