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BIOL 1500 (49)
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Chapter 4

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York University
BIOL 1500
Yong Troy

Evolutionary ProcessesAnalyzing Change in Allele Frequencies The HardyWeinberg 41oThreepronged approachoCreate mathematical models that predict the fate of alleles over time under various conditionsoCollect data to test predictions made by modelsoApply the results to solve problems in human genetics conservation of endangered species or other fieldsoBegan in 1908oIt was believed that changes in allele frequency occur simply as a result of sexual reproductionoSome biologists claimed that dominant alleles inevitably increase in frequency when gametes combine at randomoHardy and Weinberg analyzed what happens to the frequencies of alleles when many individuals in a population mate and produce offspringoThey wanted to know what happened in an entire population when all of the individuals bredThe Gene Pool ConceptoThey imaged that all of the gametes produced in each generation go into a single group called the gene pool and then combine at random to form offspringDeriving the HardyWeinberg PrincipleThe HardyWeinberg Model Makes Important AssumptionsoFor a population to conform to the HardyWeinberg principle none of the four mechanisms of evolution can be acting on the populationoThe model assumes that mating is random with respect to the gene in questionoFive assumptionsoNo natural selection at the gene in questionoNo genetic drift or random allele frequency changes affecting the gene in question
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