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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Introduction to the Cell and the Working Cell.docx


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1500
Professor
Tanya Da Sylva
Chapter
3

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Chapter 3 - Introduction to the Cell and The Working Cell
Learning Objectives:
Compare and contrast between the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and between
animal and plant cells. Relate the different structures within animal and plant cells to their
functions.
Describe the overall structure of the plasma membrane and relate the structure of phospholipid
molecules to the structure and properties of cell membranes.
oExplain why cell size is limited.
oDescribe functions of cell membranes.
oDescribe the fluid mosaic structure of animal cell membranes.
oDescribe the diverse functions of membrane proteins.
oExplain why compartmentalization is important in eukaryotic cells.
Describe the evidence that suggests that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved by endosymbiosis.
Describe the extracellular matrix and its function
Describe the various structures that allow for connection and communication between cells.
Describe diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
oExplain the process of osmosis. Describe what happens to cells in hypertonic, hypotonic,
and isotonic solutions.
oExplain how transport proteins facilitate diffusion.
Contrast various types of active transport
oDistinguish between exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, and receptor-mediated
endocytosis
Define the various types of energy and how energy can be stored in different molecules.
oState the two laws of thermodynamics and explain how they relate to biological systems.
Define and compare endergonic and exergonic reactions.
oExplain how cells use energy coupling to survive.
oExplain how ATP functions as an energy shuttle.

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Describe the role of enzymes within a cell and relate their structure to this role.
oDefine competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors.

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Textbook Notes:
3.1 Cells Are the Units of Life
For example, all organisms consist of microscopic structures called cells, the smallest unit of life
that can function independently.
A. Microscopes Revealed the Cellular Basis of Life
B. Microscopes Magnify Cell Structures
C. All Cells Have Features in Common
-Microscopes and other tools clearly reveal that although cells can appear very different,
they all have some of the same features. All cells, from the simplest to the most complex,
have the following structures and molecules in common that allow them to reproduce,
grow, respond to stimuli, and obtain energy:
DNA, the cell’s genetic information;
RNA, which participates in the production of proteins;
Ribosomes, structures that manufacture proteins;
Proteins that carry out all of the cell’s work, from orchestrating reproduction to
processing energy to regulating what enters and leaves the cell;
Cytoplasm, the fluid that occupies much of the volume of the cell; and
A lipid-rich cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane) that forms a boundary
between the cell and its environment
-Why so tiny? The answer is that nutrients, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and waste
products enter or leave a cell through its surface. Each cell must have abundant surface
area to accommodate these exchanges. As an object grows, however, its volume increases
much faster than its surface area. Small size maximizes the ratio of surface area to
volume.
3.2 Different Cell Types Characterize Life’s 3 Domains
Prokaryotes, the simplest and most ancient forms of life, are organisms whose cells lack a nucleus
(pro = before; karyon = kernel, referring to the nucleus). About 2.7 billion years ago,
prokaryotes gave rise to eukaryotes, whose cells contain a nucleus and other membranous
organelles (eu = true).
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