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Chapter 1-30

BIOL 2010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-30: Temperate Deciduous Forest, Atp Hydrolysis, Semipermeable Membrane

Course Code
BIOL 2010
Dawn Bazely

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Chapter 1 – Introduction
1. Why do biologists believe that all living things on Earth share a C.A. which originated in the
a. LUCA (last universal common ancestor)
b. All living things have at least some portion of their genome which is similar
2. What is the principal diff. b/w a heterotroph and autotroph? What role did each play in early
a. Heterotroph – organism which obtains energy by ingesting other organisms
a.i. First cells were heterotrophs and fed on organic materials such as proteins,
nucleic acid
a.ii. These released CO2 in the air allowing evolution of photosynthetic autotrophs
b. Autotroph – organism which makes its own energy
b.i. Photosynthetic autotrophs changed atmospheric composition by producing
3. Why is evolution of photosynthesis thought to be such an important event in evolution of life?
a. Evolution of photosynthesis is so important because it initiated the colonization of
terrestrial land by causing a gradual increase in the oxygen (O2) levels of the
4. What were some of the problems encountered by plants as they transitioned from sea to
land? What structures in terrestrial plants evolved to aid in this transition?
a. Water loss, protection from elements, body support, transport of materials
a.i. Cell walls, woody tissues, stem, xylem, phloem, roots, seeds
5. What are the principal roles of plants in an ecosystem?
a. They are primary producers and thus essentially provide the energy needed for the
whole ecosystem and food chain. They also provide oxygen and shelter.
6. What are some examples of developments that have been accomplished and are being
investigated in plant genetics?
a. GMO – hybrid crops
b. Medicine
Chapter 32 – Global Ecology
1. What is a biome, and what factors affect the distribution of biomes on Earth?
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a. A large-scale habitat type that can include a wide range of different
ecosystems/ecozones such as river ecosystems, wetlands, etc.
b. These divisions are based on climate patterns, soil types, and the animals and plants
that inhabit an area
c. Factors which influence distribution of biomes:
Altitude (elevation), latitude (distance from equator/poles), proximity to large
bodies of water
When a place is nearer to the equator the temperature is higher.
When a place is further from the sea the precipitation levels are lower and it is
colder (the sea holds heat longer than land does)
When a place is higher up the temperature is cold because the higher up you
get the colder it becomes.
2. Given that tropical rainforests contain such a diversity of species, why are many kinds of
tropical soils unsuitable for agriculture?
a. They are acidic and nutrient poor due to high precipitation.
3. Which factors favour grasslands over wooded ecosystems? What role does fire play in
a. Disturbances such as fire allows the coexistence of species because no particular species
can become dominant.
E.g. it prevents trees from shading out and eliminating grass species, shrubs, etc.
4. Which best characterizes a desert: high temperature or low precipitation? How have plants
adapted to desert living?
a. Low precipitation; even cold areas such as some parts in the Arctic are considered
deserts due to low precipitation
b. Plants adapt to living in deserts by developing strategies to store large amounts of water
and preventing water loss
5. How does the appearance of the temperate deciduous forest biome change from one season
to the next? What accounts for these changes?
a. The appearance of the temperate deciduous forest biome changes due to the change in
seasons as a result of the changes in the tilt of the Earth’s rotational axis
6. What is the general global pattern for biodiversity, and what factors might explain it?
a. Biodiversity seems to keep decreasing in the areas humans populate. This is likely due to
urbanization and destruction of habitat and so on.
Chapter 21 – The Human Prospect & Ethnobotany
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1. When and where did agriculture in the Fertile Crescent begin? What plants were particularly
important as early crops?
a. Began around 10 500-11 500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle
East and Eastern Mediterranean (Mesopotamia)
b. Barley, dates, wheat, lentils, peas, olives, pomegranates, grapes, chickpeas
2. What plants were important in New World agriculture? How do these plants differ from those
first cultivated in the Old World?
a. New world plants = potatoes, corn (maize), cacao, pumpkins, squash, cotton, peppers
3. How does a spice differ from an herb? Where did spices and herbs originate?
a. Herb – obtained from leaves of non-woody plants
a.i. E.g. basil, chives, parsley, thyme, rosemary, TEA leaves
a.ii. Originated everywhere (coffee = Africa, tea = Asia)
b. Spice – obtained from all other parts of the plant (i.e. roots, flower, seeds) and are rich
in essential oils
b.i. E.g. pepper, cinnamon, ginger, vanilla
b.ii. Originated in Asia, there are now New World species now though
4. Name the world’s principal crops today.
a. Corn (maize), rice, potatoes, wheat, sweet Potatoes, manioc
b. As well as Sugarcane, Sugarbeet, Common beans, Soybeans, Barley, Sorghum, Coconuts, and
5. How has the growth of the human population changed since 1600? What problems have
arisen as a result?
a. It has grown exponentially since then. As a result, famine, disease, etc. have been a
Chapters 2 – The Molecular Composition of Plant Cells
1. What are the four main types of organic molecules found in plant cells and what are their
basic structural subunits?
a. Lipids  glycerol and fatty acids
b. Proteins  amino acids
c. Nucleic Acids  nucleotides
d. Carbohydrates  monosaccharides
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