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BIOL 2020 (13)
K Wheaton (4)
Chapter 1

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BIOL 2020
K Wheaton

Biochemistry and the unity of life -Goal of biochemistry: to know what it means to be alive at the molecular level and to understand how molecular manipulations affect the life the organism leads. -Organisms are remarkably uniform at the molecular level. 1.1 living systems require a limited number of atoms and molecules -O, H, and C make up 98% of atoms in an organism. -matrix of life-refers to O and H-> H2O -C-C bonds (stability and bond energy, also can dissolve in H2O and can exist as a gas) are stronger than Si-Si bonds 1.2 There are four major classes of Biomolecules -Proteins: most versatile, 20 amino acids, 3D structure, serve as signal molecules and receptors, are catalysts specifically made of proteins are called: enzymes -Nucleic acid: function: to store and transfer info. Contain instructions. They are linear and have 4 nucleotides. Nucleotide is made up of: 5-C sugar, deoxyribose or ribose, attached to a base and one phophoryl group. DNA: parts list, (ACGT), mostly double stranded, liked by phosphodiester bonds. RNA: (ACGU), single stranded, broken down after use, used to make proteins, contains additional OH on the sugar. -Lipids: storage, fuel , and barrier. Smaller than proteins or nucleic acids. Allow development of inside and outside, signal molecules. -Carbohydrates: fuel source, starch in plants, recognition of cells (role) 1.3 The central dogma describes the basic principles of biological information transfer -DNA=genomes, DNA polymerase help to replicate it -Transcription : DNA RNA
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