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BIOL 2020 (13)
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Chapter 5

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BIOL 2020
K Wheaton

Basic concepts of enzyme action 5.1 enzymes are powerful and highly specific catalysts  Accelerate reactions  Enzyme=substrate  Proteolytic enzymescatalyze proteolysis (hydrolysis of a peptide bond)  Specificity of an enzyme: due to precise interaction of the substrate with the enzyme. This precision is a result of the intricate 3D structure of the enzyme protein. 5.2 Many enzymes require cofactors for activity  Enzyme with out cofactor=apoenzyme  Enzyme with cofactor=holoenzyme nd  Cofactor groups: 1 group=small organic molecules=coenzymes 2 group=metals 5.3 Free Energy is a useful thermodynamic function for understanding enzymes  Consider Delta G (change between products and reactants and activation energy  A reaction can take place spontaneously only if delta G is negative, exergonic  If positive endergonic  Equilibrium=no net change delta G is zero  Delta G depends only on free energy of the products minus reactants, depends on the path it takes  Delta G provides no information about the rate of a reaction  Delta G knot is the standard free energy change at 25 degrees Celsius  The standard free energy change at pH 7 is delta G knot with an upper comma, this is at equilibrium so delta G reg in the equation is at 0  The delta G compared to the delta G knot depends on the concentrations of the reactants and products  Enzymes cannot alter the equilibrium of a chemical reaction , but they do
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