natural: exposure to sub-clinical infections.
life attenuated vaccines
the virulent parental vaccines
the virus in the vaccine must be alive to replicate in the vaccines cells
• storage ex: opv with vaccines vial monitor
• maternal antibodies
• risk for back mutations
the attenuated virus can infect non vaccinated people
better herd immunity polio
risk to immuno compromised people eg. influenza
• with influenza the virus mutates every year therefore the vaccine must change.
mmr: measles, mumps, rubella, people must get it every year.
• rna viruses but genetically stable
• no back mutations safe vaccines for everybody
• human host only
influenza since 2003
• for healthy and young people
• chicken pox in kids
• shingles in adults greater lesser than 60 years
very common until 90's
• virons inactivated by chemical procedures
• ineffectively and viral ability to replicate are eliminated but antigenicity is not
• at present - very common use
• new strain every year
• even post exposure infection by rabies virus
• replication- transport- replication- transsynaptic spread- axon - uptake
1. diahtheria 2. tentanus
sub cellular/ small fragments
the virulent parental virus
• purified subunit vaccine
hepatitis b virus- A fragment vaccine
first generation - extracted from the blood plasma of hepatitis patients
today: cloned in yeast (coding using yeast/bacterial cell, expression: as mention
product i g use: post exposure locally administered
product: hyper immune human ig
use: prevention used most often in organ transplantation patients.
give the baby anti bodies against cytomegalovirus
disease: hepatitis a
product: pooled human ig
use: prevention of hepatitis a infection
disease: hepatitis b n
product: hepatitis b ig
use: prevention in high risk infants administered with hepatitis b vaccine.
blood to blood transmission, sexual contact, from mother to new born, new born
babies don't have immune to this virus at this stage.
first give the baby a boost of antibodies, bunch of vaccines given earlier are
going to protect the baby from infect 72hr after birth. vaccination with antigen in
administered, 2moths a second boost, then 6months anot