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Chapter 14

Chemistry 1001-Chap 14 notes.docx

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CHEM 1001
Michael Mozurkewich

Chemistry 1001 Chapter 14 – Textbook Notes The Rate of a Chemical Reaction  When one Sn ion is produced for every 2 Fe ions in a chemical reaction, the buildup of Sn will be only the ½ that of Fe ion.  Units for rates: mol/L*s  Increasing concentration, increases the amount of particles colliding  Increasing pressure, increases the action of particles  Increasing temperature, increases the kinetic energy of particles to collide more often  ^ All of them increase the rate of a chemical reaction Measuring Reaction Rates  Initial Rate of a Reaction: is the rate measured over a short time interval at the start of a reaction  Instantaneous Rate of a Reaction: rate measured at any point in reaction often through the slope of a tangent line to a graph of concentration vs. time  Average Rate: rate measured over longer time intervals The Rate Law  It is the relationship between the rate of a reaction and the concentrations of the reactants  Rate of reaction = k [A] [B] n  If m=1, reaction is first order  If n=2, reaction is second order  K is the rate constant: which relates the rate of reaction to reactant concentrations  The larger the value of k, the faster a reaction goes  All unimolecular reactions are first order but not all first order reactions are unimolecular  Al bimolecular reactions are second order but not all second order reactions are bimolecular  Differential Rate Law: Reaction rate as a function of concentration - Gives you rate of reaction at specific concentrations  Integrated Rate Law: Concentration as a function of time - Gives you the amount of time it takes to get from initial concentration of reactant to some other concentration Zero-Order Reactions  Rate of reaction = k [A] = k = constant  Integrated Rate Law: expresses the concentration of a reactant as a function of time  A plot of concentration as a function of time for the zero-order reaction Aproducts, is a straight line with a slope of –k First-Order Reactions  Half-life: is the time required for ½ of a reactant to be consumed  A graph for a first order reaction, it is a straight line with a slope of –k  Half-life is constant Second-Order Reactions  A graph for this would be a straight line with a slope of k  Half-life is not constant – each half life is twice as long as the one preceding it SUMMARY OF BASIC IDEAS OF REACTION KINETICS: PAGE 621 (TABLE) Theoretical Models for Chemical Kinetics  The activation energy: is the minimum kinetic energy that molecules must bring to their collisions for a chemical reaction to occur  The higher the activation energy of a reaction, the smaller is the fraction of energetic collisions and the slower the reaction  Transition state (activated complex): formed through collisions, either dissociates back into the original reactants or forms product molecules  A reaction profile: traces the progress of a reaction, highlighting the energy states of the reactants, the products and the activated complex - Potential energies are plotted on the vertical/horizontal axis against the quantity called “Progress of Reaction” - Delta H: Enthalpy change – difference between reactants and products - The dif
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