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CHEM 1500 (14)
Chapter 2

CHEM CHAPTER 2.docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 1500
Professor
Valeria Tsoukanova
Semester
Fall

Description
CHEM CHAPTER 2Atoms and the Atomic Theory 0220Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory the blast furnace for extracting iron from iron ore appeared as early as AD 1300 important chemicals as sulfuric acid oil of vitriol nitric acid aqua fortis and sodium sulfate Glaubers salt we all well known and used several hundred years ago chemistry cannot be said to have entered the modern age until the process of combustion was explained next we explore the direct link between the explanation of combustion and Daltons atomic theory Law of Conservation of Mass 1774 Antoine Lavoisier performed an experiment in which he heated a sealed glass vessel containing a sample of tin and some air he found that the mass before heating glass vesseltinair and after heating glass vesseltin calxremaining air were the same through further experiments he showed that the product of the reaction tin calx tin oxide consisted of the original tin together with a portion of the air experiments like this proved to Lavoisier that oxygen from air is essential to combustion and led him to formulate the law of conservation of mass the law of conservation of mass the total mass of substances present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass of substances before the reaction this is because matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reactionApplying the Law of Conservation of Mass Example 21 PAGE 36Law of Constant Composition 1799 Joseph Proust reported one hundred pounds of cooper dissolved in sulfuric or nitric acids and precipitated by the carbonates of soda or potash invariably gives 180 pounds of green carbonatethis and other observations became the basis of the law of constant composition or the law of definite proportions law of constant composition all samples of a compound have the same compositionthe same proportions by mass of the constituent elements To see how the law of constant composition works consider the compound water
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