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Chapter 6&10

Grossberg et al Chapter 6 & 10 Summary

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Communication Studies
COMN 1000
Joan Steigerwald

SUMMARY By: Aida S & Kaeana R Chapter 6 - The Interpretation of Meaning Considering ways to analyze and interpret the messages or texts of media in all their diverse forms. Interpretation and the Author Transmission model: sender  sends  message  receiver  receives  However, the author’s intended meaning is not always perceived by the audience  Usually, it is hard to pinpoint the real author of a given text Techniques of Interpretation Narrative Analysis  Personal values and beliefs through the stories people tell  Story (Content), Discourse (the way the story’s told), Time (organization of events within the story) Genre Theory  Different categories based off what’s presented in texts/ films  Constrain the content making it difficult for writers/ directors to innovate Semiotics  Connotation – chains of meanings that are established  chains become codes that then structure future texts and interpretations  Syntagm (Horizontal)– organization of signs connected in time and space  Paradigm (Vertical) – describes potential substitutions rather than what is actually in the text  Commutation test – asks whether a difference makes a difference – if this were changed, how would the meaning of the text be different? Content Analysis  Systematic and objective method of describing the manifest or surface content of a text  Defining categories based off various elements described in the text Analysis of Visual Texts  Semiotics is useful in visual analysis, people often assume visual images represent real life  Important to analyze themes, symbols, structure, content and “mise-en-scene” (setup of the scene)  Editing is important in visual texts  Continuity Editing: Editing visual texts to ensure a logical sequence  Power making: who makes meaning? Who is entitled to make meaning? Who makes this text apparently mean that? Who are they and why do they have this ability? Chapter 10 – Media and Behavior Behavior is an active area for communications dealing with the behavioral influences of new media technology Limited effects model: Media  Personality characteristics, social situations, general climates, culture  Behavior Behavioral Effects Types of effects  Three components of persuasion: Cognitive (Intellectual/ Knowledge), Affective (Emotional/ Evaluative), Conative (Intentional/ Behavioral)  Media messages can be separated into intended (manifest: open/overt) or unintended (latent: hidden/covert) consequences  manifest: encourage audience to buy product  latent: making the product seem desirable through underlying envy  Media can lead to intended, unintended, and minor changes as well as facilitate, reinforce, and prevent changes  Behavior making on three different time scales short-term, intermediate-term, lon
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