Textbook Notes (363,420)
Canada (158,366)
York University (12,359)
CRIM 3655 (6)


3 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
CRIM 3655
James Sheptycki

CRIM 3655 – FALL BOOK NOTES st October 1 , 2013 Whitelaw: Policing in Canada and Overview of Canadian Policing Evolution of Canadian Policing - Prior to emergence of state and governmental arrangements with centralized authority, self- policing was the method of control - With an increase in population, effectiveness decreased - Example: Hammurabi code in 1200 BC were codes of law, enforced by military authority, outlining prescribed rules of conduct and penalties for noncompliance - Hue and Cry in England – invested in every able-bodied man the responsibility to assist in the pursuit and apprehension of law violators o Failure to do so would result in punishment, often equal to that of the law-breaker - After the French revolution, two separate police bodies were set up, one to handle ordinary duties and the other to deal with political crimes o Reform to French governmental structure left lingering fears among citizens that the police represented an arm of the absolute monarchy whose primary role was to spy - Early Canadians were hesitant to create police forces that had authority and power over the population - Peel’s principals that are interesting: o Ability of police to perform duties depends upon public approval of their actions o Police should only use physical force to ensure compliance with the law or to restore order only after persuasion, advice, and warnings are insufficient - Professional Era of Policing: One of the three technological innovations that altered the delivery of the police service, the patrol car, resulted in more of an isolation from the communities they policed o Introduction of the computer being the primary dispatch system resulted in a greater difficulty for community residents to interact with and communicate their concerns to local police - Police activities are overseen both externally and internally o Police commissions, boards, and agencies established under provisions of various police acts exist as a measure of external oversight of policing - Special Investigations Unit (SIU) in Ontario o Investigates cases involving serious injury, sexual assault, or death that may have been the result of criminal offences committed by police officers o Director has authority to decide whether charges are warranted in a case - Police officers who work in internal investigation units have a challenging mandate o Must investigate co-workers as objectively and neutrally as possible o Critics argue this is impossible - Increasingly, police officers are viewed as “knowledge workers” who spend time gathering and processing information - Citizens often want police to be all things to all people, which is an impossible and unachievable goal - Police work is carried out in several different contexts: o Types and levels of criminal activity confronted o Legislation o Criminal justice system  Vested with considerable discretion in responding to incidents, so they perform a major screening process
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 3655

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.