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Environmental Studies
ENVS 2200
Stefan Kipfer

MunibaAbdulAzizWeek6Oct182013Urban Regions IRestructuring in Global City Regions Freidmann and Wolffs argument is about the global world cities emerging as the new breed of global command and control centers within the new international division of labor NIDL It means that global world cities like London Paris Tokyo and many more grow into capitalist central hubs and monopolize on skilled labor extract surpluses and spatially dominate Further views were that transnational corporations are responsible for changing the world economy in dramatic ways where banking and financially significant sectors administration and various headquarters now concentrate global cities These global cities in turn create a tightknitted and interconnected network of a global economyKim and Short expand on Friedmann and Wolffs view and go on to explain how a transnational corporation like Nike was established Many Kondrateiff cycles are thdiscussed where Ford Motor Company manufactured 25 of car production in the USA at one time and later cycles when manufacturing declined and post Fordism took place The manufacturing decline was in highly unionized places due to the high labor turnover and labor demands of Ford labors This decline paved way for Post Fordism where now there was flexibility in production and labor as women and children were the new lowwage laborKim and Short gave the example of Nike the shoe making transnational corporation Nike has no fixed factory or workers the shoes are made under contract by a range of manufacturers in developing countries like China Taiwan Singapor
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