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Jan 9 – Network Domination of US television (1959- 1971).pdf

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FILM 2401
Joseph Kispal- Kovacs

January 9 – Network Domination of US television (1959- 1971) Case Study: The Cold War and Espionage Narratives - idea of using spies and informants to help achieve military victory is almost as old as organized warfare - spies were used almost exclusively during wartime - spies were used by both sides during the civil war - end of 19th century idea of having a permanent intelligence agency tied to the military began to take hold - first such organization was the office of naval intelligence(ONI) 182 - 1885 military intelligence division (MID) - 1908 american federal government founded the bureau of investigation (BOI) - later became federal bureau of investigation (fbi) 1935 - responsible for uncovering existence & actives of german spies in US & other parts of america - office of strategic services became central intelligence agency - us did not have a permanent intelligence agency outside of the military or the domestic police service until after ww2 - the rbi continued to engage in domestic spying while the CIAwas charged with foreign intelligence gathering - during the cold war the CIAgrew into a large bureaucracy the competed with its counterpart in soveit union vast intelligence community - spied engaged in practices as break-ins, thefts, kindapping and assassinations - 1960s movie theatres and television schedules were incorporating many stories about spies - british had james bond - shows like 24 continue to develop themes that first appeared in the 1960s - secret agent - spies are deemed necessary during wartime, but also created paranoia among citizens because we don't alway snow what they are up to it - spy narratives of the 1960s - the man from u.n.c.l.e and get smart used humour and satire to poke fun at the intelligence community - i spy (1965-1968) debuted in the same month as get smart was the first of these - shot abroad in foreign locations rather than on studio lots designed to mimic these locales - use of locations added a sense of realism to the show that was absent in many other tv dramas shot on the back lots of the old hollywood film studios - program was an advertisement for international tourism so much so that after the shows initial success the tourist boards of various countries - bill cosby casted —-first dramatic series to feature a black in leading role - program interweaves the cvil rights movement, african american social mobility and international politics - adopts an emerging cviil rights sensibility and remains loyal to the state - message was americas racial conflicts were over - race secondary to national interest 
 Reading: Textbook Chapter 12 - 1858-71 big 3 tv networks (nbc, cbs, abc) experience greatest level of power & influence - single sponsor system was replaced with one using multiple sponsors in 1950s - single sponsor could not exercise a veto power over a program - this weakened the power of advertisers over the networks - networks also produced or co-produced most of their own programming , thereby creating a level of vertical integration not seen in the media industries since the big five studios of the 1930s and 1940s - owned or cowed these programs and as a result controlled their distribution in syndication - owned or co-owned 91% of all the programs in prim time 1965 and began buying local tv stations in the largest cities guaranteeing them and outlet for their network feeds - big three networks criticized for poor quality of their programming , called a wasteland - procession of game shows, violence, audience participation shows, formula comedies about to ally unbelievable families, blood and thunder, mayhem, violence, sadism, murder, western badmen, western good men, private eyes, gangsters, more violence and cartoons - endless commercials—many screaming, cajoling and offending - minnow backed up national educational television and non commercial broadcast funding for new television station construction (more channel available) and ordering televisions set manufactures to carry both VHF and UHF receivers in all new televisions sets - then began to produce more documentaries in or
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