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FILM 2401 (33)


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FILM 2401
Kispal- Kovacs Kovacs

FILM (pages133-149) Chapter08-The Rise of Broadcast Television (1946-1959) Technological, political and economic hurdles that had to be overcome Has a long pre-history that stretches to late19 C  Difficult technological hurdles that had to overcome (TV took longer than film)  Broadcast television on a national level officially started in the US on July 1, 1941 BUT the US entry into WWII; put a hold on any intermediate developments of the medium (licenses were halted& engineers were expected in the war effort Intermediate post WWII era in late 1940’s and 1950s was also the period in which consumerism really took off- lasted till 1970s longest period of interrupted growth in the history of capitalism.  Rise of television & consumerism were intertwined  TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS Television set manufactures, at first, did not develop a uniform set of technical standards Each of two major industry groupings, RCA-NBC and those around CBS, had developed television systems that operated in a different range of frequencies. At the end of WWII they pushed for the adoption of black and white broadcasting in the Very High Frequency while the CBS group wanted to establish colour broadcasting in the Ultra High Frequency. Toshiba & Sony fight another international battle over their incompatible systems for high definition video discs (Sony emerged as the victor)  It soon became apparent that limited number of frequencies available in the VHF band was hindering the development of television and limiting the growth of the number of television stations.. Additional problems: interference caused by placing TV station frequencies too close together.. FCC froze the issuing of new licenses to television broadcasters from 1948-1952. LIMITATION: most shows were done live; more like a theatre than like movies  POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS Defeat that proponents of non-profit and educational broadcasting suffered in 1934 took a long time to overcome (happened when Congress rejected the Wagner-Hatfield bill, which would of set 25% of broadcast frequencies for non profit (educational& religious) broadcasting. In 1920’b and 1930’s there was a strong lobby to make television a medium to be used primarily for educational purposes.( experiment was conducted ; did not survive)  ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS Creating a national broadcasting system was very expensive proposition this is why TV in most other countries became and endeavor of the state; governments established the first national television networks EXAMPLE: England where the BBC began broadcasting television on an experimental basis as early as 1932(US did not follow this example; they wanted no interference from government as they pursued a system that would be financed by commercial advertising rather than by government based taxat
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