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Chapter 1

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GEOG 1000
Peter Vandergeest

Geog 1000 : Reading Notes Chapter 1  Globalization: the increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging economic, political and cultural activities  Many observers argue that today’s globalization is the most fundamental reorganization of the world socioeconomic structure since the industrial revolution.  One big aspect effected by globalization is the environment because natural resources became global commodities Converging currents of globalization:  Major component of globalization is the economic reorganization of the world  Economic connectivity’s down side is that it makes the economic system more vulnerable the economic decline is one aspect if one countries economy can cause an economic decline in several different countries as a result ( ex: decline Hawaii’s tourist trade cause the fall of US and Japan’s economy) Globalization and cultural change: o The idea of western culture spreading, specifically food franchise, is not only unhealthy but is also destructive to the environment o Hybridization: the process when the US popular culture spreads to other countries and melds with the local cultural traditions and the popular cultures that come as a product of the melding process can then themselves spread globally Globalization and Geopolitica o There is a theory that globalization weakened the political power of individual states and gave more power to regional organizations and political organizations such as the euro union and WTO Environmental Concerns o Transnational firms: firm or corporation that does international business through an array of global subsidiaries → Often disrupt ecosystems with their constant and pushy search for natural resources and manufacturing sites o Controversial environmental point: economic glabalization is causing problems such as global warming, air pollution, water pollution, deforestation, ect.. However at the same time globalization and global organizations such as the UN and through different environmental treaties is the only way we can approach these problems Social Dimensions: o Increasing rates of migration and immigration whether legal or illegal o Criminal element to globalization: terrorism, drugs, pornography, slavery, and prostitution. Advocates and critiques of globalization:  Advocates believe that it will result in greater economic efficiency that will eventually result in rising prosperity for the entire world.  Critiques believe that it only benefits those who are already rich leaving most of the world poorer than before and the rich exploit the poor  North America supports globalization because it is in its benefit, however other world leaders only support some aspects such as free trade and specific aspects  Opposition to globalization usually comes from the labour force and environmental movements and many student groups world wide The Pro- Globalization stance o Pro globalization arguments → that it is a logical and inevitable expression of contemporary international capitalism that will benefit all nations and all people by: 1. Enhancing competition Creates 2. Allowing capitalism to entre poor areas more 3. Spreading new technologies and ideas efficient → argue that it will benefit nations individually by having the nation reduce its trading global barriers and have more efficient local industries to keep up with the global market economy and the flow of imports  enhancing overall national productivity  The business that cannot keep up will go out of business making the global market more efficient → argue that multinational corporations located in Europe or north America prov
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